Saturday, September 07, 2013

  Tips for Healthy Eyes

Your eyes are an important part of your health. There are many things you can do to keep them healthy and make sure you are seeing your best. Follow these simple steps for maintaining healthy eyes well into your golden years.
Have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. You might think your vision is fine or that your eyes are healthy, but visiting your eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. When it comes to common vision problems, some people don’t realize they could see better with glasses or contact lenses. In addition, many common eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and age-related macular degeneration often have no warning signs. A dilated eye exam is the only way to detect these diseases in their early stages.
During a comprehensive dilated eye exam, your eye care professional places drops in your eyes to dilate, or widen, the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye the same way an open door lets more light into a dark room. This enables your eye care professional to get a good look at the back of the eyes and examine them for any signs of damage or disease. Your eye care professional is the only one who can determine if your eyes are healthy and if you’re seeing your best.

Know your family’s eye health history. Talk to your family members about their eye health history. It’s important to know if anyone has been diagnosed with a disease or condition since many are hereditary. This will help to determine if you are at higher risk for developing an eye disease or condition.
Eat right to protect your sight. You’ve heard carrots are good for your eyes. But eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly dark leafy greens such as spinach, kale, or collard greens is important for keeping your eyes healthy, too.i Research has also shown there are eye health benefits from eating fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut.
Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing diabetes and other systemic conditions, which can lead to vision loss, such as diabetic eye disease or glaucoma. If you are having trouble maintaining a healthy weight, talk to your doctor.
Wear protective eyewear. Wear protective eyewear when playing sports or doing activities around the home. Protective eyewear includes safety glasses and goggles, safety shields, and eye guards specially designed to provide the correct protection for a certain activity. Most protective eyewear lenses are made of polycarbonate, which is 10 times stronger than other plastics. Many eye care providers sell protective eyewear, as do some sporting goods stores.
Quit smoking or never start. Smoking is as bad for your eyes as it is for the rest of your body. Research has linked smoking to an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and optic nerve damage, all of which can lead to blindness.
Be cool and wear your shades. Sunglasses are a great fashion accessory, but their most important job is to protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. When purchasing sunglasses, look for ones that block out 99 to 100 percent of both UV-A and UV-B radiation.
Give your eyes a rest. If you spend a lot of time at the computer or focusing on any one thing, you sometimes forget to blink and your eyes can get fatigued. Try the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, look away about 20 feet in front of you for 20 seconds. This can help reduce eyestrain.
Clean your hands and your contact lenses—properly. To avoid the risk of infection, always wash your hands thoroughly before putting in or taking out your contact lenses. Make sure to disinfect contact lenses as instructed and replace them as appropriate.
Practice workplace eye safety. Employers are required to provide a safe work environment. When protective eyewear is required as a part of your job, make a habit of wearing the appropriate type at all times and encourage your coworkers to do the same.

Can eating snails solve the problem of malnutrition in Nigeria and other third world countries? Researchers are optimistic that these common mollusks could provide much needed nutrition to people living in developing countries where inexpensive sources of protein are hard to come by. According to a study published in the International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health snails may actually be superior to beef in terms of nutritional value, taste acceptability, and cost. Eating Snails: A Solution to World Hunger? To test the feasibility of snails as a source of nutrition in developing countries like Nigeria, researchers baked snail pies and offered them to young mothers and children living in Nigeria. To their surprise, most of the children as well as their moms preferred the taste and texture of the snail pie over a pie made with beef. This is good news since snails are a readily available source of nutrition that can be easily collected and prepared as food. No farmland is required to raise them and large pools of labor aren’t needed to collect them and turn them into meals. Is Eating Snails Nutritious? Snails are surprisingly nutritious – high in protein and low in saturated fat. One ounce of snail has five grams of protein and is an excellent source of essential fatty acids. They’re also a good source of vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin K, magnesium, iron, and selenium. There’s a Precedent for Eating Snails Eating snails has been a culinary custom for thousands of years and is a delicacy in many Asian countries. In France cooked snails are referred to as escargot and served as a gourmet appetizer. To prepare them, the snails are removed from their shells, cooked, and placed back into shells along with garlic, hot butter, or sauce. They’re then eaten with a special snail fork.   The Dangers of Eating Snails Even if this sounds appealing, don’t be too quick to try eating snails or slugs out of your own garden. In Australia, a man was diagnosed with a rare form of meningitis after eating two slugs from his garden. The man survived, but was unable to return to his normal activities for five months after this culinary experience gone awry. Snails and slugs can be infected with a parasite known as A. Cantonensis which can cause a rare form of meningitis called eosinophilic meningitis if ingested. Don’t let this unfortunate experience happen to you. If eating snails appeals to you, at least make sure they’re well cooked.

Friday, September 06, 2013

Sugarcane is a form of grass that belongs to Poaceae family. It is native to the regions of the Old World, ranging from warm temperate ones to tropical ones. Sugarcanes have a stout, jointed and fibrous stalk, which can measure 2 to 6 meters in height. They are rich in sugar and today, are being grown in over 200 countries of the world. In 2005, Brazil was the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, followed by India. Apart from being the source of sugar, sugarcanes are also consumed in the raw form, especially in India. The juice from sugarcane is also very healthy and is loaded with a range of essential nutrients. Cane juice is a natural high-energy drink, which makes it a healthy alternative to refined sugar added drinks. The health and nutrition benefits that result from consuming sugarcane, in the raw form as well as in the form of juice, have been listed below.  
Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Sugarcanes 
  • Sugarcane, being low on glycemic index, helps keep the body fit and healthy.
  • Sugarcane juice has been found to be very beneficial for preventing as well as treating sore throat, cold and flu.
  • Since sugarcane has no simple sugar, it can be enjoyed by diabetics without any fear. However, they intake should still be limited for people suffering from type-2 diabetes.
  • Being alkaline in nature, sugarcane juice helps the body in fighting against cancer, especially prostate and breast cancer.
  • Sugarcane provides glucose to the body, which is stored as glycogen and burned by the muscles, whenever they require energy. Therefore, it is considered to be one of the best sources of energy.
  • If you have been exposed to heat and physical activity for too long, drink sugarcane juice. It will help hydrate the body quickly.
  • Sugarcane is believed to strengthen stomach, kidneys, heart, eyes, brain, and sex organs.
  • Sugarcane juice is an excellent substitute for aerated drinks and cola.
  • Sugarcane clears the urinary flow and also helps the kidney to perform its functions smoothly.
  • Sugarcane juice has been found to be good for those who are suffering from febrile disorders. Febrile disorders are responsible for causing fevers, which can result in a great amount of protein loss from the body. Liberal consumption of sugar cane juice provides the necessary protein and other food elements to the body.
  • Sugarcane is beneficial for micturation, caused due to high acidity, along with genorrhoea, enlarged prostate, cyctitis and nepthritis. Mixing sugarcane juice with lime juice, ginger juice and coconut water will give better results.
  • Sugarcane juice is said to speed up the recovery process after jaundice.
  • As sugarcane consists of carbohydrates, in good quantities, it serves to refresh and energize the body. It supplies instant energy to working muscles and for this reason, it is also known to maximize performance in sports and endurance.
  • Sugarcane is also good for digestion, as it can effectively work as a mild laxative because of its high potassium content.

Infertility refers to an inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex. Infertility can also refer to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term. In many countries infertility refers to a couple that has failed to conceive after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse without the use of contraception.

Studies indicate that slightly over half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the rest are caused by either sperm disorders or unidentified factors. According to The Mayo Clinic, USA:
  • About 20% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the man.
  • About 40% to 50% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the woman.
  • About 30% to 40% of cases of infertility are due to problems in both the man and the woman.
According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, infertility is "Diminished or absent ability to produce offspring; in either the male or the female, not as irreversible as sterility."

According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, approximately 10% to 15% of couples in the USA are infertile - meaning they have not conceived after at least one year of regular, unprotected sex.

Many cases of apparent infertility are treatable. Infertility may have a single cause in one of the partners, or it could be the result of a combination of factors.

Chances of conceiving within one year

In Europe, North America and much of the world approximately 85% of couples will conceive within one year if they have regular unprotected sex. Averages in the UK are as follows (National Health Service):
  • 20% will conceive within one month
  • 70% will conceive within six months
  • 85% will conceive within 12 months
  • 90% will conceive within 18 months
  • 95% will conceive within 24 months
Therefore, doctors in the UK will not usually diagnose a couple as infertile until 24 months have passed without conception and regular unprotected sex. Most people will see their GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) if there is no pregnancy within 12 months.

According to the National Health Service, UK, a couple that has been trying to conceive for over three years has a maximum 25% chance of conceiving over the subsequent 12 months if they continue trying.

What are the risk factors of infertility?

In medicine, a risk factor is something that raises the risk of developing a condition, disease or symptom. For example, obese people are more likely to develop diabetes type 2 compared to people of normal weight; therefore, obesity is a risk factor for diabetes type 2.
  • Age - a woman's fertility starts to drop after she is about 32 years old, and continues doing so. A 50-year-old man is usually less fertile than a man in his 20s (male fertility progressively drops after the age of 40).

  • Smoking - smoking significantly increases the risk of infertility in both men and women. Smoking may also undermine the effects of fertility treatment. Even when a woman gets pregnant, if she smokes she has a greater risk of miscarriage.

  • Alcohol consumption - a woman's pregnancy can be seriously affected by any amount of alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse may lower male fertility. Moderate alcohol consumption has not been shown to lower fertility in most men, but is thought to lower fertility in men who already have a low sperm count.

  • Being obese or overweight - in industrialized countries overweight/obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are often found to be the principal causes of female infertility. An overweight man has a higher risk of having abnormal sperm.

  • Eating disorders - women who become seriously underweight as a result of an eating disorder may have fertility problems.

  • Being vegan - if you are a strict vegan you must make sure your intake of iron, folic acid, zinc and vitamin B-12 are adequate, otherwise your fertility may become affected.

  • Over-exercising - a woman who exercises for more than seven hours each week may have ovulation problems.

  • Not exercising - leading a sedentary lifestyle is sometimes linked to lower fertility in both men and women.

  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - chlamydia can damage the fallopian tubes, as well as making the man's scrotum become inflamed. Some other STIs may also cause infertility.

  • Exposure to some chemicals - some pesticides, herbicides, metals (lead) and solvents have been linked to fertility problems in both men and women.

  • Mental stress - studies indicate that female ovulation and sperm production may be affected by mental stress. If at least one partner is stressed it is possible that the frequency of sexual intercourse is less, resulting in a lower chance of conception.
Causes of infertility in women
  • Ovulation disorders - problems with ovulation are the most common cause of infertility in women, experts say. Ovulation is the monthly release of an egg. In some cases the woman never releases eggs, while in others the woman does not release eggs during come cycles. Ovulation disorders can be due to:

    • Premature ovarian failure - the woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40.

    • PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) - the woman's ovaries function abnormally. She also has abnormally high levels of androgen. About 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age are affected to some degree. Also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

    • Hyperprolactinemia - if prolactin levels are high and the woman is not pregnant or breastfeeding, it may affect ovulation and fertility.

    • Poor egg quality - eggs that are damaged or develop genetic abnormalities cannot sustain a pregnancy. The older a woman is the higher the risk.

    • Overactive thyroid gland

    • Underactive thyroid gland

    • Some chronic conditions, such as AIDS or cancer.

  • Scientists discover gene that explains infertility - scientists from the University of Edinburgh reported in the Journal of Cell Science that they identified a gene that controls a vital process in the formation of healthy fertile eggs.

    They say their breakthrough will help researchers better understand how cells divide during reproduction, which in turn will help explain low fertility and sterility.

    This gene allows chromosomes to bunch up together. The authors believe that this huddling of chromosomes secures the healthy development and subsequent fertilization of an egg.

    They analyzed hundreds of infertile Drosophila oocytes (fruit flies) and found that without the gene SRPK, the chromosomes do not huddle together. This gene exists in human cells.

    The researchers said that "the absence of SRPK ultimately leads to sterility and low fertility".

  • Problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes

    The egg travels from the ovary to the uterus (womb) where the fertilized egg grows. If there is something wrong in the uterus or the fallopian tubes the woman may not be able to conceive naturally. This may be due to:

    • Surgery - pelvic surgery can sometimes cause scarring or damage to the fallopian tubes. Cervical surgery can sometimes cause scarring or shortening of the cervix. The cervix is the neck of the uterus.

    • Submucosal fibroids - benign or non-cancerous tumors found in the muscular wall of the uterus, occurring in 30% to 40% of women of childbearing age. They may interfere with implantation. They can also block the fallopian tube, preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg. Large submucosal uterine fibroids may make the uterus' cavity bigger, increasing the distance the sperm has to travel.

    • Endometriosis - cells that are normally found within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body.

    • Previous sterilization treatment - if a woman chose to have her fallopian tubes blocked. It is possible to reverse this process, but the chances of becoming fertile again are not high. However, an eight-year study showed tubal reversal surgery results in higher pregnancy and live birth rates and is less costly than IVF.

  • Medications - some drugs can affect the fertility of a woman. These include:

    • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) - women who take aspirin or ibuprofen long-term may find it harder to conceive.

    • Chemotherapy - some medications used in chemotherapy can result in ovarian failure. In some cases, this side effect of chemotherapy may be permanent.

  • Radiotherapy - if radiation therapy was aimed near the womans reproductive organs there is a higher risk of fertility problems.

  • Illegal drugs - some women who take marijuana or cocaine may have fertility problems.
Causes of infertility in men


Semen is the milky fluid that a man's penis releases during orgasm. Semen consists of fluid and sperm. The fluid comes from the prostate gland, seminal vesicle and other sex glands. The sperm is produced in the testicles. During orgasm a man ejaculates (releases semen through the penis). The seminal fluid helps transport the sperm during ejaculation. The seminal fluid has sugar in it - sugar is an energy source for sperm.

Abnormal semen is responsible for about 75% of all cases of male infertility. Unfortunately, in many cases doctors never find out why. The following semen problems are possible:

  • Low sperm count (low concentration) - the man ejaculates a lower number of sperm, compared to other men. Sperm concentration should be 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. If the count is under 10 million there is a low sperm concentration (subfertility).

  • No sperm - when the man ejaculates there is no sperm in the semen.

  • Low sperm mobility (motility) - the sperm cannot "swim" as well as it should.

  • Abnormal sperm - perhaps the sperm has an unusual shape, making it more difficult to move and fertilize an egg.

Sperm must be the right shape and able to travel rapidly and accurately towards the egg. If the sperm's morphology (structure) and motility (movement) are wrong it is less likely to be able to reach the egg and fertilize it.

The following may cause semen to be abnormal:
  • Testicular infection

  • Testicular cancer

  • Testicular surgery

  • Overheating the testicles - frequent saunas, hot tubs, very hot baths, or working in extremely hot environments can raise the temperature of the testicles. Tight clothing may have the same effect on some people.

  • Ejaculation disorders - for some men it may be difficult to ejaculate properly. Men with retrograde ejaculation ejaculate semen into the bladder. If the ejaculatory ducts are blocked or obstructed the man may have a problem ejaculating appropriately.

  • Varicocele - this is a varicose vein in the scrotum that may cause the sperm to overheat.

  • Undescended testicle - one (or both) testicle fails to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development. Sperm production is affected because the testicle is not in the scrotum and is at a higher temperature. Healthy sperm need to exist in a slightly lower-than-body temperature. That is why they are in the scrotum, and not inside the body.

  • Hypogonadism - testosterone deficiency can result in a disorder of the testicles.

  • Genetic abnormality - a man should have an X and Y chromosome. If he has two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (Klinefelter's syndrome) there will be an abnormal development of the testicles, low testosterone, and a low sperm count (sometimes no sperm at all).

  • Mumps - this viral infection usually affects young children. However, if it occurs after puberty inflammation of the testicles may affect sperm production.

  • Hypospadias - the urethral opening is at the underside of the penis, instead of its tip. This abnormality is usually surgically corrected when the male is a baby. If it is not the sperm may find it harder to get to the female's cervix. Hypospadias occur in about 1 in every 500 newborn boys.

  • Cystic fibrosis - Cystic fibrosis is a chronic disease that affects organs such as the liver, lungs, pancreas, and intestines. It disrupts the body's salt balance, leaving too little salt and water on the outside of cells and causing the thin layer of mucus that usually keeps the lungs free of germs to become thick and sticky. This mucus is difficult to cough out, and it clogs the lungs and airways, leading to infections and damaged lungs. Males with cystic fibrosis commonly have a missing or obstructed vas deferens (tube connecting the testes to the urethra; it carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct and the urethra).

  • Radiotherapy - radiation therapy can impair sperm production. The severity usually depends on how near to the testicles the radiation was aimed.

  • Some diseases - the following diseases and conditions are sometimes linked to lower fertility in males:

      Cushing's syndrome
      Thyroid disease

  • Medications

      Sulfasalazine - this anti-inflammatory drug can significantly lower a man's sperm count. The drug is often prescribed for patients with Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Usually this side effect goes away after the patient stops taking the medication.

      Anabolic steroids - often taken by bodybuilders and athletes; anabolic steroids, especially after long term use can seriously reduce sperm count and mobility.

      Chemotherapy - some medicines may significantly reduce sperm count.

  • Illegal drugs - consumption of marijuana and cocaine can lower a man's sperm count.

Diagnosing infertility

Most people will visit their GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) if there is no pregnancy after 12 months of trying. For anybody who is concerned about fertility, especially if they are older (women over 35), it might be a good idea to see a doctor earlier. As fertility testing can sometimes take a long time, and female fertility starts to drop when a woman is in her thirties, seeing the doctor earlier on if you are over 35 makes sense.

A GP can give the patient advice and carry out some preliminary assessments. As it takes two to make a baby it is better for both the male and female to see the doctor together.

Before undergoing testing for fertility it is important that the couple be committed. The doctor will need to know what the patients' sexual habits are, and may make recommendations regarding them. Tests and trials might extend over a long period. Even after thorough testing, no specific cause is ever found for 30% of infertility cases.

In some countries where universal healthcare cover does not exist, evaluation and eventual treatment may be expensive.

Tests for males
  • General physical exam - the doctor will ask the man about his medical history, medications, and sexual habits. The physician will also carry out an examination of his genitals. The testicles will be checked for lumps or deformities, while the shape and structure of the penis will be examined for any abnormalities.

  • Semen analysis - the doctor may ask for some specimens of semen. They will be analyzed in a laboratory for sperm concentration, motility, color, quality, infections and whether any blood is present. As sperm counts can fluctuate, the man may have to produce more samples.

  • Blood test - the lab will test for several things, including the man's level of testosterone and other male hormones.

  • Ultrasound test - the doctor will determine whether there is any ejaculatory duct obstruction, retrograde ejaculation, or other abnormality.

  • Chlamydia test - if the man is found to have Chlamydia, which can affect fertility, he will be prescribed antibiotics to treat it.
Tests for females
  • General physical exam - the doctor will ask the woman about her medical history, medications, menstruation cycle, and sexual habits. She will also undergo a gynecological examination.

  • Blood test - several things will be checked, for example, whether hormone levels are correct and whether the woman is ovulating (progesterone test).

  • Hysterosalpingography - fluid is injected into the woman's uterus which shows up in X-ray pictures. X-rays are taken to determine whether the fluid travels properly out of the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. If the doctor identifies any problems, such as a blockage, surgery may need to be performed.

  • Laparoscopy - a thin, flexible tube with a camera at the end (laparoscope) is inserted into the abdomen and pelvis to look at the fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries. A small incision is made below the belly button and a needle is inserted into the abdominal cavity; carbon dioxide is injected to create a space for the laparoscope. The doctor will be able to detect endometriosis, scarring, blockages, and some irregularities of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

  • Ovarian reserve testing - this is done to find out how effective the eggs are after ovulation.

  • Genetic testing - this is to find out whether a genetic abnormality is interfering with the woman's fertility.

  • Pelvic ultrasound - high frequency sound waves create an image of an organ in the body, which in this case is the woman's uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

  • Chlamydia test - if the woman is found to have Chlamydia, which can affect fertility, she will be prescribed antibiotics to treat it.

  • Thyroid function test - according to the National Health Service (UK) between 1.3% and 5.1% of infertile women have an abnormal thyroid.

Treatment options for infertility?

This will depend on many factors, including the age of the patient(s), how long they have been infertile, personal preferences, and their general state of health. Even if the woman has causes that cannot be corrected, she may still become pregnant.

Frequency of intercourse

The couple may be advised to have sexual intercourse more often. Sex two to three times per week may improve fertility if the frequency was less than this. Some fertility experts warn that too-frequent sex can lower the quality and concentration of sperm. Male sperm can survive inside the female for up to 72 hours, while an egg can be fertilized for up to 24 hours after ovulation.

Fertility treatment for men
  • Erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation - medication and/or behavioral approaches can help men with general sexual problems, resulting in possibly improved fertility.

  • Varicocele - if there is a varicose vein in the scrotum, it can be surgically removed.

  • Blockage of the ejaculatory duct - sperm can be extracted directly from the testicles and injected into an egg in the laboratory.

  • Retrograde ejaculation - sperm can be taken directly from the bladder and injected into an egg in the laboratory.

  • Surgery for epididymal blockage - if the epididymis is blocked it can be surgically repaired. The epididymis is a coil-like structure in the testicles which helps store and transport sperm. If the epididymis is blocked sperm may not be ejaculated properly.
Fertility treatment for women
  • Ovulation disorders - if the woman has an ovulation disorder she will probably be prescribed fertility drugs which regulate or induce ovulation. These include:

    • Clomifene (Clomid, Serophene) - this medication helps encourage ovulation in females who do not ovulate regularly, or who do not ovulate at all, because of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or some other disorder. It makes the pituitary gland release more FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone).

    • Metformin (Glucophage) - women who have not responded to Clomifene may have to take this medication. It is especially effective for women with PCOS, especially when linked to insulin resistance.

    • Human menopausal gonadotropin, or hMG, (Repronex) - this medication contains both FSH and LH. It is an injection and is used for patients who don't ovulate on their own because of a fault in their pituitary gland.

    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (Gonal-F, Bravelle) - this is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that controls estrogen production by the ovaries. It stimulates the ovaries to mature egg follicles.

    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl) - this medication is used together with clomiphene, hMG and FSH. It stimulates the follicle to ovulate.

    • Gn-RH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) analogs - for women who ovulate prematurely, before the lead follicle is mature enough during hmG treatment. This medication delivers a constant supply of Gn-RH to the pituitary gland, which alters the production of hormone, allowing the doctor to induce follicle growth with FSH.

    • Bromocriptine (Parlodel) - this drug inhibits prolactin production. Prolactin stimulates milk production in breast feeding mothers. If non-pregnant, non-breast feeding women have high levels of prolactin they may have irregular ovulation cycles and have fertility problems.
Risk of multiple pregnancies

Injectable fertility drugs can sometimes be the victims of their own success and cause multiple births - when the woman gets pregnant she has twins, triplets, or perhaps more babies in one go. Oral fertility drugs also raise the risk of multiple pregnancies, but much less so than injectable ones. It is important to monitor the patient carefully during treatment and pregnancy. The more babies the mother carries inside her the higher is her risk of premature labor.

If a woman needs an HCG injection to activate ovulation and ultrasound scans show that too many follicles have developed, it is possible to withhold the HCG injection. Couples may decide to go ahead regardless if the desire to become pregnant is very strong.

Multifetal pregnancy reduction is possible if too many babies are conceived - one or more of the fetuses is removed. Couples will have to consider the ethical and emotional aspects of this procedure.
  • Surgical procedures for women

    • Fallopian tube surgery - if the fallopian tubes are blocked or scarred surgery may repair them, making it easier for eggs to pass through them.

    • Laparoscopic surgery - a small incision is made in the woman's abdomen. A thin, flexible microscope with a light at the end (laparoscope) is inserted through the incision. The doctor can then look at internal organs, take samples and perform small operations. For women with endometriosis, laparoscopy removes implants and scar tissue, reducing pain and often aiding fertility.
Assisted conception
  • IUI (intrauterine insemination) - a fine catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus to place a sperm sample directly into the uterus. The sperm is washed in a fluid and the best specimens are selected. This procedure must be done when ovulation occurs. The woman may be given a low dose of ovary stimulating hormones.

    IUI is more commonly done when the man has a low sperm count, decreased sperm motility, or when infertility does not have an identifiable cause. The procedure is also helpful for males suffering from severe erectile dysfunction.

  • IVF (in vitro fertilization) - sperm are placed with unfertilized eggs in a Petri dish; the aim is fertilization of the eggs. The embryo is then placed in the uterus to begin a pregnancy. Someitmes the embryo is frozen for future use (cryopreserved). Louise Joy Brown, born in England in 1978, was the world's first IVF baby. Before IVF is done the female takes fertility drugs to encourage the ovaries to produce more eggs than normal.

    Time-lapse imaging triples the chances of having a baby for couples undergoing IVF treatment, researchers reported in Reproductive BioMedicine Online (May 2013 issue). Described as a "major breakthrough", time-lapse imaging became available in 2013 in the UK for monitoring the development of IVF embryos before they are implanted in the womb.

    In an Abstract in the journal, the authors wrote "Time-lapse imaging of human preimplantation IVF embryos has enabled objective algorithms based on novel observations of development (morphokinetics) to be used for clinical selection of embryos."

    With this new technique, the scientists could develop a way of accurately identifying which embryos are more likely to have aneuploidy (abnormal chromosomes). Embryos with aneuploidy are much less likely to be successfully implanted.

    The researchers, from CARE Fertility, said further large-scale studies are needed to confirm their findings.

    Researchers from Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada, reported in CMAJ that IVF is more successful if the woman has sufficient levels of vitamin D.

  • ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection) - a single sperm is injected into an egg to achieve fertilization during an IVF procedure. The likelihood of fertilization improves significantly for men with low sperm concentrations.

  • Donation of sperm or egg - if there is either no sperm or egg in one of the partners it is possible to receive sperm or eggs from a donor. Fertility treatment with donor eggs is usually done using IVF. In the UK and a growing number of countries the egg donor can no longer remain anonymous - the offspring can legally trace his/her biological parent when reaching the age of 18.

  • Assisted hatching - this improves the chances of the embryo's implantation; attaching to the wall of the uterus. The embryologist opens a small hole in the outer membrane of the embryo, known as the zona pellucid. The opening improves the ability of the embryo to leave its shell and implant into the uterine lining. Patients who benefit from assistant hatching include women with previous IVF failure, poor embryo growth rate, and older women. In some women, particularly older women, the membrane is hardened, making it difficult for the embryo to hatch and implant.

  • Electric or vibratory stimulation to achieve ejaculation - ejaculation is acheived with electric or vibratory stimulation. This procedure is useful for men who cannot ejaculate normally, such as those with a spinal cord injury.

  • Surgical sperm aspiration - the sperm is removed from part of the male reproductive tract, such as the vas deference, testicle or epididymis.

Complications of infertility treatment?

  • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)

    The ovaries become very swollen, leaking excess fluid into the body. The ovaries produce too many follicles (small fluid sacs in which an egg develops). OHSS usually occurs as a result of taking medications to stimulate the ovaries, such as clomifene and gonadtrophins, and can also develop after IVF. Symptoms can include:

    • Bloating
    • Constipation
    • Dark urine
    • Diarrhea
    • Nausea
    • Pain in the abdomen
    • Vomiting

    In most cases symptoms are mild and easy to treat. On very rare occasions the patient may develop a blood clot (thrombosis) in an artery or vein, liver or kidney problems, and respiratory distress. In very severe cases OHSS can be potentially fatal.

  • Ectopic pregnancy

    This is a pregnancy when the fertilized egg does not implant in the womb - in most cases the fertilized egg grows in the fallopian tube. If it stays in the fallopian tube the mother will usually miscarry before complications develop, such as the rupture of the fallopian tube. Women receiving fertility treatment have a slightly higher risk of having an ectopic pregnancy. An ultrasound scan can detect an ectopic pregnancy.

  • Coping mentally

    As it is impossible to know how long treatment will go on for and how successful it will be, coping and persevering can be stressful. The emotional toll on both partners might be considerable and can have an impact on their relationship. Some people find that joining a support group helps - being able to talk to others who share similar problems, aspirations and anxieties can be uplifting. It is important to tell your doctor if you are suffering mentally and/or emotionally. Most fertility doctors have access to counselors, as well as other people and professionals who can offer helpful support.

In many cases, hemorrhoids can be treated effectively with diet, good hygiene, and topical medications. In some cases, though, diet and drugs are not enough. People who do not respond to non-surgical treatments might experience long-term relief through surgery.

Types of Hemorrhoid Surgery

Surgery should be considered for people with large hemorrhoids that are very painful or bleeding. Here are the options:
Surgery to remove hemorrhoids is called hemorrhoidectomy. During hemorrhoidectomy, the doctor makes incisions around the anus to cut away the hemorrhoids. People undergoing the procedure may be given local anesthesia (the patient is awake though relaxed during the procedure but the area being operated on is made numb) or general anesthesia (the patient is put to sleep during the procedure).
Hemorrhoidectomy is generally an outpatient procedure, and patients usually go home the same day.
While surgery usually relieves the pain, swelling, bleeding, and itching caused by hemorrhoids, a drawback to this procedure is that the incisions are made in a highly sensitive area and might require stitches, which can cause the area to be tender and painful.
The Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH)
PPH is a minimally invasive procedure to treat hemorrhoids and/or prolapse, a condition in which the hemorrhoids or anal tissue slips down out of the anal canal. During PPH, a stapler-like device is used to reposition the hemorrhoids and cut off their blood supply. Without blood, the hemorrhoids eventually shrivel and die. This procedure moves the hemorrhoid higher in the anus, where there are fewer nerve endings, thus reducing pain.
Benefits of PPH include:
  • Less pain
  • Quicker recovery
  • Less bleeding and itching
  • Fewer complications
Other Options for Hemorrhoids
Other minimally invasive options for reducing the size of or removing hemorrhoids include:
  • Laser: A special, precise laser beam is used to burn away hemorrhoidal tissue.
  • Rubber band ligation: A rubber band is placed around the base of the hemorrhoid to cut off the blood supply and kill the tissue. This is done in an area that has less pain receptors, so it less painful .
  • Sclerotherapy: A chemical solution is injected around the blood vessel that supplies the hemorrhoid to shrink and destroy it.
Although these minimally invasive procedures might result in less pain and fewer complications, hemorrhoidectomy might provide better long-term results. Talk to your doctor to see which procedure is right for you.

What Are the Risks of Hemorrhoid Surgery?

Hemorrhoid surgery is very common and is considered safe. However, every surgery has some risks including:
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Reaction to anesthesia
In addition, patients might have some trouble urinating because the pain following surgery makes it difficult to relax and allow urine to flow. Further, the anal sphincter might be damaged during surgery, which can lead to pain and/or fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence is the inability to control your bowels, which can lead to the involuntary release of feces or gas.


Tea is the second most consumed beverage after water.

Tea drinking has been claimed to have health benefits for centuries, but only in recent years have doctors conducted studies to see if the claims are justified.

Considering the amount of tea drunk around the world every day, the news that the drink can be good for you is welcome indeed. Recent research has indicated that drinking tea as part of a healthy diet and life style can help maintain a healthy body including a healthy heart.
The value of tea may be due, in part, to its antioxidants. Like fruit and vegetables, tea is rich in antioxidants. (In tea these are known as flavonoids). Antioxidants in the diet may help the body in its management of free radicals – highly reactive substances capable of causing damage to body cells.
If that's not enough to convince you that tea is worth trying, take a look at some of these fast facts. Green and black teas offer the same health benefits. Many people don't realize that black and green tea contain virtually the same amount of antioxidants. In fact, whether hot or cold, bottled or using a bag, tea is probably the healthiest drink around.
Drinking four cups of tea is rehydrating – not dehydrating as is often said – unless the amount of tea consumed at one sitting contains more than 250mg of caffeine (the equivalent of five cups of tea).

Drinking a cup of tea a few times a day to absorb antioxidants and other healthful plant compounds. In green-tea drinking cultures, the usual amount is three cups per day.
Allow tea to steep for three to five minutes to bring out its catechins.
The best way to get the catechins and other flavonoids in tea is to drink it freshly brewed. Decaffeinated, bottled ready-to-drink tea preparations, and instant teas have less of these compounds.
Tea can impede the absorption of iron from fruits and vegetables. Adding lemon or milk or drinking tea between meals will counteract this problem.
Tea contains fluoride, which has a well-established link to dental health. Studies have shown that tea can provide up to 70% of the fluoride you need. It's also thought that antioxidants in tea may help inhibit the growth of the bacteria that cause plaque.
Tea without milk and sugar has virtually no calories. And in hot weather, it seems refreshing. This may be because it can raise your body temperature and momentarily cause an increase in perspiration, which cools the skin.
ontains up to .4% by dry weight caffeine

Teas such as Lipton are made from tea leaves rich in natural antioxidants, plus other good stuff your body loves. As for the taste, with a range covering hot and cold teas, and green and black varieties, it boosts your taste buds, as well as your well being.

Thursday, September 05, 2013


1. It is perfectly true that the levels of microwave radiation in publicly accessible locations near GSM and TETRA Base-stations comply, by many factors of 1000, with the current safety guidelines set by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) [1]. These limits are, however, purely thermally based - i.e. they simply limit the intensity of the radiation to ensure that the amount of tissue heating by absorption of microwave radiation is not in excess of what the body’s thermoregulatory mechanism can cope with. If heating were the only effect of the radiation, existing guidelines would afford the public adequate protection against the emissions of Base-stations; unfortunately, however, this is not the case. For microwaves are simply one particular realisation of electromagnetic radiation (visible light being another, relative to which microwaves lie on the far side of the infrared) and, as such, have properties other than solely intensity. In particular, the pulsed microwave radiation used in the GSM and TETRA systems of telecommunication has a number of rather well-defined frequencies, which, in at least two quite distinct ways, entail the possibility of non-thermal effects.
2. Firstly, although microwave radiation is non-ionising i.e. has insufficient energy (energy being proportional to frequency) to break chemical bonds, thereby producing electrically charged ions it does have enough energy to be able to effect subtle conformational changes, whereby molecular ‘architecture’ can be sufficiently altered that certain biochemical processes are affected - even those that are apparently not contingent on aliveness, such as the increased leakage of calcium from brain tissue, which has been reported, in vitro, under exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation that is (sinusoidally) amplitude modulated at certain low frequencies, in particular, 16Hz (See Para.5 below).
3. The second, more interesting, possibility is of an ‘informational’ non-thermal influence allied to the fact that the alive human organism as a whole itself supports (but only when alive) a variety of oscillatory electrical biological/ biochemical activities, each characterised by a specific frequency, some of which happen to be close to those found in the GSM/TETRA signals - a coincidence that makes these bioactivities potentially vulnerable to being affected in various ways [2]. Since these activities are involved in bio-communication and in the control and regulation of bioprocesses essential to well-being, it is reasonable to anticipate that it is the functionality of the alive organism that is impaired by exposure to radiation of sub-thermal intensity containing bioactive frequencies. Experience in the case of exposure to GSM radiation suggests that the interference is with bioprocesses that would otherwise afford a natural protection against adverse health effects This contrasts strongly with the situation at thermal levels where actual material damage to DNA, cells and tissue can occur. It is to be stressed again, however, that unlike heating, non-thermal influences of an informational kind are possible only when the organism is alive: the Dead have no electrical brain activity, for example, with which an external electromagnetic field can interfere! The existence of endogenous biological oscillatory electrical activities thus makes the living organism an electromagnetic instrument of great and exquisite sensitivity that is able - by decoding (demodulating) its various frequency characteristics, including those of any (lower frequency) amplitude modulations - to ‘recognise’ and discern the presence of external electromagnetic fields and radiation ‘informationally’, and so be affected in a purely non-thermal way.
4. The frequency of the radiation that is used to carry (by appropriate modulations) the voice information (messages) in both GSM and TETRA lies in the microwave band - a frequency range in which there is some evidence (particularly at higher frequencies [3]) that processes as fundamental as cell division can be interfered with in various ways - the somewhat lower carrier frequencies characterising the radiation used in TETRA facilitating its deeper penetration into tissue. On the other hand, the rates at which the microwaves are emitted in distinct groups of flashes (or pulses) happen to be close to the frequencies of some of the brain’s own electrical and electrochemical rhythms; accordingly, these can be (resonantly) amplified (perhaps to a biologically unacceptably high level), interfered with (similar to the case of radio reception), and even entrained by the radiation i.e. forced to operate at frequencies that are ‘unnatural’, in that they differ from those that characterise the natural rhythms of the body, thereby possibly compromising homeostasis. In GSM, the basic ‘flash rate’ is 217Hz; these flashes are, however, emitted in groups of 25 (each group being defined by the absence of the 26th flash) at the rate of 8.34Hz a frequency lying in the range of the human alpha brain wave activity. In the case of TETRA, on the other hand, the nature of the Base-station pulsing is somewhat different, but is again described by low frequencies that are here close to 70Hz and 17Hz the latter characterising the much more accentuated pulsing of the emissions of vehicularly mounted transmitters.
5. 17Hz is very close to the frequency (16Hz) at which radio-frequency /microwave radiation of sub-thermal intensities that is amplitude modulated in various ways - in particular, continuously (sinusoidally) and discontinuously (pulsed) - is reported, mainly under in vitro conditions, to cause: (i) a significant increase in loss (efflux) of calcium from brain cells, which is, however, reproducible only under certain exposure conditions [4], and which occurs even in the case of dead brain tissue; since calcium triggers release of neurotransmitters, any disturbance in the delicate balance of this chemical could well upset the integrity of the nervous (and also the immune) system; (ii) increased levels [5] of Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC), a (rate limiting) enzyme that plays an important role in DNA replication, and possibly also in cancer promotion (see Para.9); (iii) opposing (and thus possibly stress inducing) effects [6] on the principal inhibitory and excitatory neuro-mediating brain chemicals that underpin the activity of the central nervous system. In addition, it should further be noted that the TETRA frame repetition rate is also close to the frequency at which seizures can be provoked in people suffering from photosensitive epilepsy by exposure to a light, flashing at between 15-20 times per second (see Para.8).
6. More disturbing is that the low frequencies that characterise the GSM/TETRA pulsing are close to those at which it is known that human mood and behaviour can be influenced in a number of ways (ranging from depression/docility to rage), depending on the kind/ frequency of modulation used [7], it being actually possible to induce sounds, and even words, intercranially by appropriate modulations of the microwave signal [8].
7. What the Mobile Phone Industry and the various national governmental Regulatory Bodies (such as the NRPB in the UK) dispute is that the very weak, pulsed microwave radiation used in GSM and TETRA exerts any non-thermal biological influences that entail adverse health reactions. Their conviction that, provided the intensity of the radiation complies with the ICNIRP safety guidelines, human exposure to this kind of radiation is innocuous derives, however, firstly, from the erroneous belief that electromagnetic fields should be regarded as toxins to the body - rather than an integral feature of its alive state and, secondly, from an outdated ‘linear’ mindset that prejudices the conclusion that exposure to weak radiation (below guideline levels) can entail only correspondingly weak effects, and vice versa. The invalidity of the latter is clearly indicated by the existence of the ‘informational’ influences referred to above, which, being contingent on our aliveness, are inherently non-linear effects i.e. they depend not only on the electromagnetic field to which a subject is exposed, but also on the state of the individual at the time of exposure: any attempt to understand such effects from a purely linear perspective is thus doomed, in that it is unable to address the most discriminating feature of all, namely, the ‘aliveness’ of the system under consideration.
8. ‘Official’ reviews of published research (such as the Stewart Report of the IEGMP [10], the Zmirou Report [11] commissioned by the French government, and the NRPB’s report on TETRA [12]) fail to adequately address the issue of electromagnetic sensitivities that are contingent on aliveness, and are regrettably characterised by a consistent tendency to put the most negative possible ‘spin’ on any positive results (that are suggestive of, or consistent with, possible health problems) - demanding further corroboration before accepting them - or to reject them either on the grounds that, in their opinion, the experiments are flawed for one reason or another, or because of difficulties in identifying credible mechanisms for the (disputed) observed effects. Whilst such scepticism is, of course, healthy and essential to the progress of reliable science, care must, at the same time, be taken to ensure that valuable indicators of potential positive effects are not missed (or prematurely dismissed), and equally, that negative findings (consistent with the safety of the technology) are not automatically deemed exempt from similar scrutiny: at present, there is a definite bias towards regarding any positive results as ‘false positives’, whilst rarely considering the possibility of ‘false negatives’ a dangerous and totally unacceptable state of affairs that is geared to promote a quite unjustified and unrealistic sense of security.
9. The importance of ensuring non-thermal electromagnetic compatibility between mobile phone radiation and energised electronic equipment, such as that in aircraft and hospitals is, of course, generally accepted and respected. Ironically, however, the same does not yet obtain in the case of the alive human organism, despite (i) the fact that the latter is itself an electromagnetic instrument par excellence, which, as already mentioned, can detect electromagnetic fields that are millions of times weaker than those to which the public is exposed by GSM/TETRA Base-stations, (ii) the existence of a wide variety of non-thermal bio-effects induced by low intensity microwave radiation (both pulsed and non-pulsed) that have been revealed by many experiments, enjoying varying degrees of corroboration, which have been performed over the last 30 years on many different kinds of biosystems - ranging from cells in test-tubes to the entire living human organism most of which have been published in international, peer reviewed scientific journals [13].
10. Whilst the occurrence of non-thermal effects does not, of course, necessarily entail any adverse health consequences, there is, nevertheless, a disturbing consistency between some of these non-thermal bioeffects and the nature of some of the adverse health reactions reported both by certain users of mobile phones and by certain people (involuntarily) exposed long-term to the radiation from GSM Base-stations [2]. Of particular concern is the way in which this radiation (non-thermally) affects brain function specifically, its electrical activity (EEG), its electro-chemistry, and the blood/ brain barrier - and degrades the immune system. Thus, for example, the radiation is known to (i) disturb the delicate balance of chemicals in the brain in particular, the dopamine-opiate system - and (ii) to increase the permeability of the human blood brain barrier (thereby facilitating the passage of chemical toxins from the blood into brain fluid), both of which are medically considered to underlie headache, one of the most persistently reported adverse health effects. Similarly, the duration of REM sleep is shortened by exposure to radio-frequency radiation, whilst nocturnal secretion of melatonin is partly inhibited, both of which are consistent with reports of sleep disruption and concentration problems, and with anecdotal reports of an elevated incidence of certain cancers in some exposed people; for melatonin is an oncostatic hormone i.e. a hormone that protects against cancer, particularly in females. Furthermore, the possibility of deliberately provoking epileptic seizures in certain animals by exposing them to pulsed microwave radiation is consistent with reports of an increased incidence of seizures in some epileptic children when exposed to the emissions of GSM Base-stations. The latter finding is not at all unreasonable, given the established ability of a visible light (such as that from a stroboscope) flashing at a rate somewhere between 15-20 times per second to provoke seizures in the 5% minority of people who suffer from photosensitive epilepsy. For visible light and microwaves are both simply different realisations of electromagnetic radiation, and the microwave radiation used in GSM and TETRA similarly ‘flashes’ (pulses) at rates that the brain is able to recognise; unlike visible light, however, pulsed microwaves are not reliant on the eye and optic nerve to access the brain, since they can penetrate the skull directly.
11. It has already been noted that although microwave radiation is non-ionising i.e. does not have enough energy to break chemical bonds, particularly in DNA it can, nevertheless, functionally interfere with the natural processes involved in DNA replication and repair by subtly altering molecular conformation (architecture), for example; this could well account, respectively, for the reports of certain effects observed in vitro, such as chromosome aberrations/ micronuclei formation and for the increased amount of DNA fragmentation found under irradiation. Similarly, the in vivo finding that exposure to pulsed GSM radiation (of an intensity comparable to that realised during mobile phone use) promotes the development of cancer in mice that have been genetically engineered to have a predisposition to cancer is consistent with other (in vitro) studies showing (i) increased levels [5] of an enzyme (ODC) that has been implicated in tumour promotion, and (ii) over-expression (in the short-term) of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in both human and animal cells [15] exposed to GSM radiation; for it has been hypothesised that over-expression of HSPs inhibits natural programmed cell death (apoptosis), thereby allowing cells that should have ‘committed suicide’ to continue to live; this hypothesis is currently being tested experimentally [16]. Under-expression (associated with chronic exposure), on the other hand, can adversely affect the natural repair of DNA breakage. Taken together, these various effects are, in turn, consistent with (a) the 2-3-fold increase in the incidence of a rare form of cancer in the periphery of the human brain, where the penetration of the (electric field component of the) radiation from the handset is greatest (the laterality of the tumours correlating with that of handset use), which has been found in a epidemiological study in the USA [17], and (b) with the increased incidence of cancer amongst users of mobile phones found in a recently published Swedish epidemiological study [18], although in both studies it should be noted that, in the majority of cases considered, exposure was not to (digital) GSM phones, but rather to the somewhat higher powered, older analogue ones, which, having been available for rather longer, permit the effects of exposure over a rather longer period to be studied.
12. It is important to appreciate that the contents of Paras.9-11, which pertain to exposure to the emissions of GSM handsets, are not irrelevant to the consideration of the effects of exposure to Base-station radiation, since the informational content of the latter is the same as that of the phone signals; indeed, the increasing number of disturbing reports of rather serious adverse health effects in animals (particularly cattle [19]) exposed to GSM Base-station radiation could well be valuable warning portents that should not be ignored; equally, the steadily increasing number of reports [20] of unexplained clusters of human cancers in the vicinity of certain GSM Base-stations warrants urgent investigation.
13. It is essential to appreciate, however, in the case of non-thermal influences contingent on aliveness, that it necessarily follows that not everyone will be equally susceptible, even when exposed to exactly the same radiation for exactly the same length of time - susceptibility depending not only on the radiation, but also on the genetic predisposition and physiological state of the individual when irradiated, such as the stability of a particular person’s electrical brain activity and level of stress prior to exposure. Whilst this admittedly makes the occurrence of non-thermal effects more difficult to predict (and hence to regulate against) than is the case with thermal effects - and, of course, undermines the extent to which they can be considered to be ‘established’, in the sense required for them to be eligible for consideration in safety deliberations - it does not mean that they can be safely ignored, or that they cannot provoke adverse health reactions in certain people, the severity of which will again vary from person to person, according to the robustness of their immune systems. More meaningful is to ask whether there is an established potential risk to human health from exposure to GSM/TETRA radiation: the answer is undoubtedly ‘yes’. It is probably true to say that if a similar degree of risk and uncertainty as to subjective noxiousness obtained in the case of a new drug or foodstuff, it is unlikely that they would ever be licensed.
14. Quite apart from their weaker immune systems, pre-adolescent children are particularly vulnerable - Because of the increased rate at which their cells are dividing (which makes them more susceptible to genetic damage), and because their nervous system is still developing - the smaller size of their heads and their thinner skulls increasing the amount of radiation that they absorb, particularly at 900MHz. Especially vulnerable to interference by the pulsed microwave radiation used in GSM is their electrical brain-wave activity, which does not settle into a stable pattern until puberty. The use of mobile phones by pre-adolescent children is thus to be strongly discouraged, and the siting of Base-station masts in the vicinity of schools and nurseries (including those hidden in church towers and in illuminated signs, such as those at petrol stations, for example) must be strongly resisted: financial gain must not be allowed to be the overriding consideration.
15. In connection with Base-station exposure, it must be appreciated that it is impossible to cite a universally applicable ‘safe distance’. The only meaningful approach, at present, is to require, in publicly accessible locations near a mast, that the intensity of the radiation should be below the level at which any adverse health effects have so far been reported; including an additional safety factor of 10, a maximum intensity limit of 10nW/cm2 ( = 10-4 W/m2 - equivalent to 0.2V/m) is, in this way, indicated. The precise distance from a mast at which this level is realised depends, however, on how powerful are the antennae, their height above ground-level, the orientations of the main beams and their ‘side lobes’ (subsidiary emissions that are much more localised in the immediate vicinity of a mast), and the local topography.
16. To cite the examples of radio and television transmissions (to which we have been exposed for a much longer time than is the case with GSM/TETRA) in an attempt to support the claim that exposure to the (much less intense) radiation used in mobile telephony is harmless is flawed on at least three accounts: (i) the occurrence, in any case, of certain health problems that correlate with exposure to the radiation from such installations , (ii) the fact that, unlike that used in GSM/TETRA, the radiation from TV and radio transmitters is not emitted in pulses, in particular, in patterns characterised by frequencies that the brain can recognise, and neither are the carrier frequencies in the (more biologically active) microwave band, and (iii) the beam morphologies are quite different. Furthermore, before taking reassurance from the asserted absence of health problems amongst continental users of TETRA, it should be remembered that it is often the much less biologically active TETRAPOL system (as opposed to TETRA) that is there used.
17. In conclusion, it can hardly be disputed that to enjoy an acceptable quality of life requires more than simply an absence of terminal disease. Adverse health effects in humans of the kinds already reported worldwide such as headaches, sleep disruption, impairment of short-term memory, etc. - whilst maybe not life-threatening in themselves, do nevertheless have a debilitating effect that undoubtedly affects general well-being, and which in the case of some children could well undermine their neurological and academic development, as is already evident from experience in the case of a number of infant/junior schools at which a GSM Base-station is located. It should be stressed, however, that, to date, the apparent absence on a global scale of more serious pathologies attributable to exposure to the emissions of GSM/TETRA Base-stations is no guarantee of immunity in the long-term; indeed, as mentioned earlier in Para.10, there is already an increasing number of reports [19] of unexplained clusters of cancers in the vicinity of certain GSM Base-stations, whose non-involvement remains to be established.

Hot springs are natural features resulting when ground water is heated (sometimes far beyond the level of human endurance) by geothermal forces and brought to the surface, typically becoming diluted with cool surface water on the way.tions and are sc Many are in attractive locaenic (e.g. the geysers of Yellowstone National Park, Kamchatka, New Zealand, etc.) or celebrated (e.g. the original town of Spa), hence are attractions or even destinations in their own right. However, for the hot-spring aficionado, the greatest pleasure comes not from just looking at the spring, but from getting into the water for its therapeutic powers, not to mention just because it feels good -- really good. This article will help travelers get the most out of their hot-spring experiences world-wide.

The term "hot spring" means different things to different people, and it's a good idea to know just what manner of hot spring you're bound for at a destination, because it may be something quite different from what you're expecting. In English the term is used more or less interchangeably for "wild" springs, where the water emerges directly from the ground into a natural catchment that can be used for bathing, and "developed" springs, which exploit the spring through construction of man-made artifacts such as pools and bath houses. "Wild" springs and "developed" springs can differ so much, and in so many ways, that the visitor expecting one and getting the other may not enjoy the experience very much. Some examples:
  • Wild springs are often (although not always) on public land or otherwise accessible to the public without charge, while developed springs are almost invariably intended by the developer to make a profit, and hence will charge (and be in a legal position to demand) an admission fee.
  • You can't count on creature comforts at a wild spring; you may have to sit on a rock at water's edge to doff your clothing, and pre-entry showers are pretty well out of the question, let alone amenities like poolside drinks that a developed spring may offer. On the other hand, wild springs are generally open-air and take you "back to nature" in ways that a developed spring may not.
  • At a wild spring, water temperature is purely on an as-is basis; the pool where you bathe will be at a temperature that's regulated solely by the relative proportions of water from the spring and meteoric (surface) water that the terrain imposes. As a consequence, water at wild springs can be uncomfortably, or even dangerously, hot. Commercial operators of developed springs will generally ensure that the water temperature is appropriate (sometimes offering several choices of temperature in different pools) through dilution of the spring's effluent with water from the commercial supply or other sources. This distinction is particularly important; the bather used to "tame" water from a commercial spring who wades directly into a seething-hot wild spring can receive a painful, or even fatal, surprise.
  • Hot-spring water is usually fairly safe from the standpoint of carrying disease-causing organisms, but some is not (see below under "Stay healthy"), and the surface water that cools a scalding spring to usable temperatures will be prone to the same bugs and pathogens as any other surface water. Operators of developed springs may (or may not) take steps to disinfect the water, but at a wild spring, you're obviously on your own.
Note, incidentally, that a "developed" hot spring is not necessarily a commercial hot spring, i.e., one that has been developed for profit-making purposes. The distinction can be important in countries and regions where the political/economic system allows for both for-profit and public-interest/non-profit/governmental development; regulations for doing the developing will often differ between the two cases, as will the resulting amenities, access, etc. For example, as a general rule, springs in the United States that have been developed by government will have fewer amenities, but also lower admission fees, than for-profit developments. In Japan, many hot springs in rural locations are maintained by the local government and are open to the public for free, and even expensive spa resort towns usually have at least one public bath open to all for a token fee.


There is a difference between a hot spring and a spa. The latter term denotes either a pleasantly warm tub of water (not necessarily originating in a hot spring) suitable for bathing for medicinal and recreational purposes, or the -- sometimes incredibly elaborate, luxurious, and expensive -- resorts where such tubs can be found, which incorporate massage, body wraps, and so on. Not every spa is based on a hot spring (many, perhaps most, simply heat meteoric water to the desired temperature); not every developed hot spring has spa-like amenities.

All work and no play makes you a dull boy/girl.” This saying has lasted in time for quite long and for good reasons. If you work all the time, and don’t have time for some occasional recreation, you will simply tire yourself . Recreation is beneficial for both physical and psychological wellbeing.


Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The “need to do something for recreation” is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be “fun”. The term recreation implies participation to be healthy refreshing mind and body.
The Values and Benefits of Recreation for professionals are numerous. The charm lies in looking out something that’s works out best for you. There are different types of recreation and what value and benefit you derive from it depends upon your proactiveness to try them out and incorporate them as part of working routine. Let’s talk about 10 values and benefits that work out best and should encourage you to take recreational activities from time to time
1 ) Helps You Relax – Recreational activities help you relax and give soothing effect to your nerves. It helps you release the tension and maintain equilibrium. It is one of the best relaxation techniques to help you get back to work in full form.
2 ) Reduces Stress- Are you feeling stress lately. Do late hours sucks out the best in you. If tension is taking its toll on you then recreation activities are best for you.
3 ) Impacts Your Health- Recreational activities have a very good impact on your health. It is an excellent medicine for ailments which cannot be cured by any other manner. It is a natural way to stay fit and healthy in life.
4 ) Social Benefits- It helps you meet like minded people and develop a favorable rapport. People who share common interest makes a joyful group that help each other to promote themselves. Importance of recreation gets reflected in the status you build for yourself.
5 ) Refresh the Senses- Feeling dumb? Recreation is the important and best activity to refresh you senses and prepare you for the next battle. It rejuvenates your senses and makes you feel light again.
6 ) Refills the Energy- Recreation activities are best mechanism to refill your energy and make you feel alive again. It is best way to charge you up when you feel exhausted and drained out.
7 ) Quality of Life- Recreational activities help you build self esteem and confidence. It helps you enhance the quality of life by building a positive self image.
8 ) Effective Time Utilization- When your body is at the best of its form both in terms of health and energy, recreational activities helps you utilize your time effectively. The effort you put in a certain task is way below what you could have possibly put without any recreational activity.
9 ) Sharpen Skills- The value and benefit of recreational activities is best seen in the form of skills that gets developed and sharpened over the period of time. You not only are inclined to learn more things but are also motivated to be at your best.
10) New Avenues- It has happened to people and it can help you too. People who enjoy it to the best of its form have developed a career in one form or the other.
Investigated the role of recreation satisfaction on life satisfaction using 78 male and 132 female retired persons (aged 60–94 yrs). Ss completed the Leisure Activities Blank, a leisure satisfaction scale, and a self-exploration questionnaire. Results indicate that frequency of participation in recreation activities had no significant positive relationship to life satisfaction in retirement. Satisfaction with recreation activities showed a significant and positive relationship with life satisfaction even when compared with the variables of gender, age, marital status, annual income, self-rated health, religiosity, retirement choice, and mobility. It is suggested that recreation program planners who serve older participants should assess the activity as well as the potential for satisfaction in programs.
This paper proposes that recreation resource managers need to give more attention to the benefits that a person derives from participation in recreation activities. Behavioral information is described as one of several types of knowledge needed in recreation planning and management decisions. A model outlining the dynamics of a recreationist’s behavior is presented. Within that model sequences of specific types of recreation behavior are traced from: deciding on a particular recreation activity, planning and preparation, on-site engagement, recall, realizing satisfying experiences, to gaining the ultimate benefits these experiences can produce. Personal and social benefits of recreation participation are defined as the ways in which an individual functions or performs more effectively because of his having participated in a recreation activity. The importance to recreation resource management of information on these benefits is described as is the state of knowledge for identifying and measuring them. Throughout, the need for additional research is emphasized.
This study examines the interrelationships among recreation and other life circumstance variables and quality of life. LISREL, a causal analysis technique, was used to test a theoretical model based on previous gerontological research. Results indicate that the variables of sex, education, religiosity, marital status, and age are significantly related to income, health, recreation activity participation, and recreation satisfaction. However these variables do not significantly influence quality of life directly. The only significant, direct predictor of quality of life is satisfaction with recreation.


Recreation feels like a rain shower during scorching heat. Recreation is the time to be together with your friends and family and to have fun. Devoting some time for recreation helps in staying healthy and achieving a peace of mind. Recreational activities serve as a way of relaxaxing and as researches have shown recreation on a daily basis reduces risks of diabetes and hypertension and it improves mental and physical health and improves the quality of life.