Saturday, September 28, 2013


Reading a book may make your eyes feel blurry, and under stress. Your body can get sick from just sitting down and not moving.
There are no disadvantage of reading.....
The vast majority of people believe that if it is in a book it must be right and correct. Some feel the same way about newspapers and the internet. Just because something has been put down into words on some media, that does not mean it is accurate. == Answer == Also, books and other printed media take up lots of room, and need to be stored carefully to avoid deteriorization and fire hazards. They must also be disposed of at some point. They use up natural resources and energy in their production.

It's only fair to offer some advantages for the sake of balance. Printed media do offer tangible evidence that a given work or point of view was at least being considered at a given time. Printed media are of course not guaranteed to be more correct or accurate. But in printed form it is easier, I think, to hold authors and publishers accountable for the materials they produce. Electronic media can seem so ephemeral to those of us who grew up with print. Electronic media can be so easily modified, with little possibility of knowing by whom or why. Nothing takes the place of sitting in a comfortable chair, with a real printed book that you can read and flip through, re-read favorite passages, turn pages.... Electronic media are important. They are here to stay. I hope that people will also see that the same can be said for books and other printed media.

Friday, September 27, 2013


Getting yearly physicals makes intuitive sense—routine checkups can pick up early signs of disease and get you on treatment that could save your life.
But the latest collaboration shows that such vigilance do not reduce the risk of dying  from serious illness like cancer and heart disease, and may cause unnecessary harm instead.

  Danish researchers studied 14 long-term trials (with a median follow up of nine years) involving 182,880 people, some of whom were offered general health checks and some who were not. Nine of the trials found no differences in the number of deaths during the study period between the groups, including deaths from heart disease or cancer, two conditions that are most commonly assessed during checkups. Overall, the analysis failed to find any differences on hospital admissions, disability, worry, specialist referrals, additional visits to doctors or time off work. One trial did find a 20% increase in diagnoses among those getting more frequent health checks, and others recorded an increase in the number of participants using drugs for hypertension, but these did not translate into better health outcomes.

“From the evidence we’ve seen, inviting patients to general health checks is unlikely to be beneficial,” . “One reason for this might be that doctors identify additional problems and take action when they see patients for other reasons.”
Preventive screening remains controversial—and confusing— for health care consumers. The intuitive power of screening for disease to prevent it is hard to counter, but the latest evidence, from government health groups such as the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) shows that the data don’t always support the idea that screening leads to better health. When factoring things such as the cost of screening and follow up tests to confirm false positive or false negative results, the regular checkups aren’t always beneficial.

That’s the case with breast or prostate cancer, in which studies show that mammograms or prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing can lead to overtreatment of tumors that are unlikely to cause serious disease during people’s lifetimes, but cause unnecessary physical and emotional strain instead. The USPSTF now recommends that women wait until age 50 (not 40) to get yearly mammograms, and that most men not get the PSA test at all. “It is generally recognized that screening should be based on evidence from randomized trials showing a favorable balance between benefits and harms. In our review we could not find that, and we therefore cannot see any justification for public health programs pushing for routine health checks,” says KrogsbĂžll in an email response.

That leaves doctors and patients with the difficult challenge of figuring out how much testing is enough. The researchers are not advising doctors to discontinue screening and treatment if they believe a patient has a health problem, but they suggest public healthcare initiatives that systematically offer general health checks to the public in general might not make sense. That means that physicians may need to spend more time with their patients to better determine their individual risk for certain diseases, something that may require a bigger investment of resources initially, but may pay off in health care savings down the road.
Since patients who seek or are willing to undergo routine screening are generally healthier than those who are not (indicating that general health checks are least likely to reach those who could benefit the most), and because most people do not receive interventions that are known to be beneficial, general health checks do not appear to be a wise use of scarce healthcare resources.
…When contemplating screening, practitioners should focus on tests that are targeted to the patient’s age, sex, and specific risk factors, and that are supported by high-quality evidence. All screening tests (general health checks or focused screenings based on age, sex, or specific risk factors) have potential for benefits and harms, so consideration of patient preferences is critical, especially for those tests where such preferences vary between individuals or where the overall benefit:harm ratio is less favorable.

Tuesday, September 24, 2013


After-school activities, late workdays, long commutes -- it's no wonder few families eat dinner together. Yet studies show that the family dinner hour is an important part of healthy living.
When families dine together, they tend to eat more vegetables and fruits -- and fewer fried foods, soda, and foods with trans fats, research shows. When younger kids frequently eat dinner with their families, they are less likely to be overweight than other children. That tends to change in the teenage years, when they're less likely to eat at home.

Recommended Related to Diet & Weight Management

Onions: Full of Nutrients
Peel away the skin of this vegetable to find whole layers of health benefits. Worshiped by the Egyptians as far back as 3500 B.C., the onion symbolized eternity because of its concentric-circle construction. Onions are rich in powerful sulfuric compounds, responsible for their pungent odor -- and for irritating our eyes. Studies also suggest that onions may lower high blood pressure, reduce heart attack risk, and even help protect against cancer (probably thanks to the presence of phytochemicals...
It's a serious concern, since statistics show that nearly one in five children aged 6-19 in the U.S. are overweight. That puts them at higher risk for many health problems later in life, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes -- as well as emotional problems.
"One of the simplest and most effective ways for parents to be engaged in their teens' lives is by having frequent family dinners," says Joseph Califano Jr., chairman and president of The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA).

10 Benefits of Family Dinners

Toting up all the benefits of frequent family dinners:
  • Everyone eats healthier meals.
  • Kids are less likely to become overweight or obese.
  • Kids more likely to stay away from cigarettes.
  • They're less likely to drink alcohol.
  • They won't likely try marijuana.
  • They're less likely to use illicit drugs.
  • Friends won't likely abuse prescription drugs.
  • School grades will be better.
  • You and your kids will talk more.
  • You'll be more likely to hear about a serious problem.
  • Kids will feel like you're proud of them.
  • There will be less stress and tension at home.

10 Tips for Organizing Family Dinners

Don't let this mission feel daunting! Even the simplest meals -- like order-in pizza -- qualify as family dinners. The goal is to get everyone to the dinner table and to spend quality time together - not to force Mom into June Cleaver or Carol Brady mode. Here are tips on pulling it off:
  • Set a goal. Twice a week, perhaps? Build from there.
  • Keep it simple. Family meals don't have to be elaborate. Work salads and vegetables into meals. Focus on familiar favorites, like chili or frittatas.
  • Be prepared. Keep ingredients for healthful meals on hand, including plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • Keep healthy 'appetizers' on hand. Stock the kitchen with fresh fruits, nuts, and low-fat cheese -- stuff the kids can snack on after school, instead of chips.
  • Get the family involved. Let kids help prepare meals and set the table.
  • Use the crock pot. Put everything together before leaving for work in the morning. You'll come home to the delicious smell of a cooked meal.
  • Pick up take-out, order pizza, or eat out. It still counts as quality time spent together.
  • Avoid portion distortion. Keep serving sizes under control, whether you're at home or eating out.
  • Make it enjoyable. Leave the serious discussions for another time. Family meals are for nourishment, comfort, and support.
  • Set the mood. Play soothing music. Put flowers on the table. Light a candle. Create a relaxing environment.

Both viruses and bacteria can enter the body different ways. You can eat them if they are in a certain type of food or live in the animal or plant you are eating. You can get them from the water, either swimming in it or drinking it. You can breath them in from the air and they enter your lungs. If you touch a bacteria or virus and then rub your nose or eyes they can enter your body that way as well. Sometimes, when someone sneezes on you the virus or bacteria in their snot will land on you, that is why we say "cover your mouth!".

Once the virus or bacteria is in it can travel in the blood to any cell in your body. Once it reaches the cell of choice it can enter by tricking the cell into thinking it is food or using a entry way that nutrients, molecules and other proteins use to get in to the cell. SO, for every different virus or bacteria the method of entry and infection is different. It is a very interesting subject because viruses and bacteria can be very sneaky!!!!!

There are many ways that bacteria can enter your body.All they need is an opening! For example, they can come into your body through your mouth, or your nose, or your ears. Because bacteria are very small, they can even come in through very small openings, such as the pores of your skin! Your body has a lot of defenses to keep the bad bacteria from coming in too far through these openings. However, sometimes the bacteria can come in past the defenses. You might breathe in bacteria that are suspended in the air, or eat bad bacteria that is in your food. This is why it's so important to cook your food well and live in a healthy and clean environment! Also, bad bacteria can enter very easily through cuts and other injuries, which is why it's important to keep wounds clean.

Viruses may also enter in the same ways as bacteria, but viruses are different than bacteria in many ways. One key difference is that while bacteria just live on and inside your body, viruses actually go inside your cells! They are able to attach themselves to the outside of a cell, and then inject their own RNA (which is a lot like DNA) into the cell, and take it over!
Viruses are very hard for your body to get rid of, which is why doctors get very concerned about some harmful viruses.

Although there are a lot of bacteria and viruses in the world, you should remember that the vast majority of them are not harmful, and in fact a lot of them are very helpful! We tend to notice the ones that make us sick more, though. The best defense against these bad ones is to live in a clean environment, so that there are fewer germs, and most importantly to live a healthy lifestyle, so that your body is in a good condition to fight the invaders.

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The fountain of eternal youth may be nothing but a legend, but what if you could follow some easy steps to keep looking and feeling younger? Simple strategies can help keep your skin supple and your mind sharp, as well as decreasing the risk for chronic diseases. Here are seven ways to beat Father Time and maintain your youth on the inside AND the outside.

Keep Your Cells Clean and Young

 Exercising aids cells in cellular “autophagy,” a process in which cells clear out debris and junk and reuse it as fuel. If the cells struggle in the process, chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer’s are more likely.
And the slowing of autophagy is believed to contribute to aging. Although the exact interaction between autophagy and exercise isn’t clear, “autophagy affects metabolism and has wide-ranging health benefits in the body, and so does exercise,”

Walking Outdoors Adds Years to Your Life

The health benefits of walking are numerous. This simple activity improves your life expectancy, wards off diseases and improves various markers of health. But did you know that simply walking in a green space can improve your longevity as well? Research looking at over 3000 senior citizens living in urban areas showed that five-year survival rates increased when they were able to walk in parks or tree-lined streets near where they lived.
If a stroll in a park or a short hike leaves you thirsting for more, a long weekend in nature—and away from cell phones and computers--has been found to boost problem solving and creative insight.

Get Your Zzz’s—But Don’t Overdo It!

Stay sharp as you age by being well rested. New research presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference last July showed that adequate sleep can reduce or prevent cognitive decline. Sleeping less than seven hours a day had a negative effect on the mind, but surprisingly enough, sleeping more than 9 hours a day was also problematic. The magic range was 7 to 9 hours of sleep per night—more or less than that could age you by two years.
Worried about getting wrinkles when you sleep? Just make sure to sleep on your back. As I’ve previously reported, this helps prevent “sleep lines” which are developed when you press your face into the pillow while sleeping on your side or belly.

Wear Sunglasses, No Matter What the Weather

Your skin may naturally begin to wrinkle as you age, but you can reduce the damage by slipping on some shades. “Sunglasses are a great defense against wrinkles since they help us not to squint. Wear them every day, no matter what the weather. Your eyes will thank you,”
But those $5 sunglasses from the gas station just won’t do. You want to wear sunglasses with ultraviolet (UV) protection to prevent premature wrinkles, since UV light is what breaks down connective tissue in the skin, causing sagging and other issues. Remember to keep your shades on even in the winter; UV rays are strongest in the summer, but are present all year round.

Avoid a Wrinkly “Cigarette Face”

As if the lung cancer, heart disease and the myriad of other dangers associated with a tobacco habit aren’t bad enough, smoking cigarettes can also age your skin prematurely by damaging blood vessels, elastin and collagen. This makes your skin weaker and less elastic. Add to that the inevitable squinting and lip-puckering from smoking, and you’ve got a recipe for a pattern of wrinkles called “cigarette face.”
Quitting smoking will improve your breath, teeth and nails, make normal activities (such as taking the stairs or walking briskly to catch a bus) seem easier, so you’ll look and feel younger—and because much of the damage from smoking is reversible if you quit, you’ll likely live longer, too.

Get an Antioxidant Boost

Not only are they nutritionally dense, but colorful fruits and vegetables deliver protective antioxidants to prevent free radical damage. This helps lower your risk of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s, macular degeneration and other diseases, as well as keeping your skin looking its best.
The best fruits and vegetables for a heavy dose of antioxidants are apples, pears, cherries, plums, pineapple, kiwi, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, cranberries, avocados, artichokes, spinach, potatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, and red cabbage.

Slather on Sunscreen, Even in Fall and Winter

Just like harmful UV rays from the sun can harm your eyes, they can also do a number on your skin. Wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen (SPF 15 or higher) all year round, and avoiding the sun when it’s at its brightest (between 10AM and 4PM) can help prevent wrinkles, age spots, and skin cancer.
And don’t forget to wear sunscreen while you’re driving—or you’ll risk getting the shocking photo aging that caused one side of this man’s face to look decades older than the other, due to years of unprotected sun exposure while driving a truck.

Your mother was right: Breakfast really is the most important meal of the day. Not only does it give you energy to start a new day, but breakfast is linked to many health benefits, including weight control and improved performance. 
Studies show that eating a healthy breakfast (as opposed to the kind containing doughnuts) can help give you:
  • A more nutritionally complete diet, higher in nutrients, vitamins and minerals
  • Improved concentration and performance in the classroom or the boardroom
  • More strength and endurance to engage in physical activity
  • Lower cholesterol levels
Eating breakfast is important for everyone, but is especially so for children and adolescents. According to the American Dietetic Association, children who eat breakfast perform better in the classroom and on the playground, with better concentration, problem-solving skills, and eye-hand coordination.

Breakfast Benefit: Weight Control

Many studies, in both adults and children, have shown that breakfast eaters tend to weigh less than breakfast skippers.
Why? One theory suggests that eating a healthy breakfast can reduce hunger throughout the day, and help people make better food choices at other meals. While it might seem you could save calories by skipping breakfast, this is not an effective strategy. Typically, hunger gets the best of breakfast-skippers, and they eat more at lunch and throughout the day. 
Another theory behind the breakfast-weight control link implies that eating breakfast is part of a healthy lifestyle that includes making wise food choices and balancing calories with exercise. For example, consider the successful losers followed by the National Weight Control Registry, all of whom have lost at least 30 pounds and kept it off at least one year. Some 80% of the people in the Registry regularly eat breakfast (and also follow a calorie-controlled, low-fat diet).
It's worth noting that most studies linking breakfast to weight control loss looked at a healthy breakfast containing protein and/or whole grains -- not meals loaded with fat and calories.

Make Lean Protein Part of Your Breakfast

Adding a little lean protein to your breakfast may be just the boost you need to help keep you feeling full until lunchtime.
"Protein blunts your hunger the most, and is the most satiating.

Depending on your choice, unripened fruit can either be a delicious, nutritious treat or sickening to the stomach.

If a fruit is not naturally green, and yet appears to be so, you can be sure it is not yet ripe. Unripened fruit is highly acidic and has a sour taste, which can overwork your digestion and leave you with a stomach complaint.

It is a common mistake to think that all fruit at your local fruit store is the ripest you are going to get.
Climacteric fruits may be purchased unripened and left a day or two in the fruit bowl at home to ripen naturally. Some of these fruits include apples, apricots, avocado, bananas, rockmelon (but not honeydews or watermelons), figs, guavas, mangoes, nectarines, papaya, peaches, pears, plums, tomatoes.

How to Ripen Fruit Fast

Follow these easy tips to speed up the ripening of your unripened fruit at home:
  • Placing the unripe fruit in the paper bag on a counter and leave it for a day or two.
  • Place bananas next to the unripe fruit. Be sure to check the fruit daily to make sure it hasn't started to rot.
  • Avoid placing the unripened fruit in the fridge where it is dark and cold. As seen in the summertime, fruit generally ripens at a greater speed in lighter and warmer conditions.
  • Try to choose ripe fruit in the first place.
Cooking is also another solution to unripened fruit. It doesn't speed up the ripening process, but it does:
  • Increase the sweetness of the fruit;
  • Decrease the bitterness and astringency of the fruit;
  • Soften the fruit, allowing it to be eaten more easily.
There are several fruits however that when eaten raw, prove as delicious as they are nutritious.

Green Papaya

Papaya in all its forms is deliciously sweet and refreshing. Papayas, including that of the green variety, are laiden with antioxidant nutrients such as carotenes, vitamin C, flavonoids, B vitamins, Folate, pantothenic acid and the minerals, potassium and magnesium. They also contain a high amount of fibre and the digestive enzyme papain.

Unripened green papaya may be used to treat:

Digestive Disorders

The enzyme papain found in unripened papaya is reported to relieve symptoms of gastric juice deficiency, excess digestive mucus, intestinal irritation and dyspepsia.

Menstrual Irregularities
For those seeking relief from irregular period, raw papaya juice should be drunk. The muscle fibres of the womb are stimulated by unripe papaya juice, which trigger a natural menstrual flow.

Skin Disorders
Unripe papaya can relieve the swelling and inflammation of wounds, as well as reducing the severity of symptoms of other skin disorders such as acne and psoriasis. It has also been anecdotally reported as a natural exfoliant that decreases skin pigmentation and other brown spots.

Throat Conditions
Raw papaya juice mixed with honey has been known to reduce the inflammation and infection of throat disorders such as tonsillitis by dissolving the mucus membrane.

Unripened/Green/Raw Mango

Green mangoes are a rich source of starch and offer many medicinal qualities derived from the astringent, acidic qualities of the fruit. It's sour taste is due to the presence of oxalic, citric, malic and succinic acids, and its also rich in other antioxidant nutrients such as Pectin, Vitamin C, Niacin, B1 and B2

Unripened, green mangoes may be used to treat:

Heat Stroke
Drinks prepared with unripened mangoes have been anecdotally reported o relieve heat exhaustion and stroke. Preparing the beverage with salt relieves dehydration and replaces sodium chloride and iron otherwise lost due through sweating.

Digestive Disorders

Diarrhea, dysentery, piles, morning sickness, dyspepsia, indigestion and constipation may also be relieved after eating an unripened mango. Make sure to chose one in which the seed is not fully formed and add honey to taste.

Bilious Disorders
Green mangoes contain acids that stimulate the secretion of bile and act as intestinal antiseptic. This prevents bacteria from decomposing, toning the liver, keeping the system healthy.

Blood Disorders
The high vitamin C content of green mangoes increases the elasticity of blood vessels, helps form new blood cells, allows for greater iro absorption from food and increases the body's resistance to diseases such as anemia, cholera, dysentery and TB.

  Excessive consumption (more than 1-2/day) of green mangoes may lead throat irritation, indigestion, dysentery and abdominal colic. Water should also be avoided after eating a green mango because it coagulates the sap and makes it more irritant.

Green Tomatoes

Many people don't even know about unripened green tomatoes, and the different taste they offer to their red counterparts. They are calorie poor, high in vitamin C, vitamin A, Lycopene and beta-carotene.
  • Before eating an unripened green tomatoe please consider the following:
  • Not all green tomatoes are unripened. Some are bred specifically green and may be confused to be so. Make sure to check with your groceror before purchasing the fruit.
  • Avoid smaller green tomatoes that carry an overly bitter taste that can ruin your green tomato recipe.
  • Before cooking your green tomatoes, make sure to extract the woodier stem and core piece.
It is recommended green tomatoes be cooked before consumption and limited to 1-2 per day. Excess consumption of Green tomatoes may cause diarrea and vomiting as they contain the natural toxins glycoalkaloids that can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. These toxins are generally not present in ripened, red tomatoes and give the green tomatoes their bitter taste.

Care is often provided by a team. A palliative care team, for example, may include many different healthcare professionals and some of them are described here:

Different health professionals involved with palliative care


Patients may have a GP, a specialist or other doctors caring for them. Sometimes people have known their GP or specialist for a long time and can develop close relationships. Others won’t always see the same doctor all the time. It can be helpful to have someone from the family with them, who can help to explain what is happening.
Family members may not have the same GP as the patient. Illnesses affect everyone involved. It is a good idea to consider giving doctors and other health professionals permission to talk to each other if family members are having any health issues at the same time.


There are nurses within the hospital, there are community based nurses, palliative care specialist nurses and aged care and veteran affairs’ nurses. They may not all be involved in providing palliative care. Sometimes nurses share the care, so there may be more than one nurse for different reasons. They may leave a 'community file' at home with notes about the patient’s care. This is to help make communication as open as possible. Nurses provide crucial support. They will explain the details of physical care, and sometimes also provide care that is needed. They can talk about the medicines that are to be taken, and offer an opportunity for patients and their families to share feelings and emotions.

Social workers

Often social workers are involved in palliative care. They can help families understand what is happening 'in the system'. They can help to understand the emotional, psychological, social and practical matters that will have to be tackled.

Occupational therapists and physiotherapists

Physiotherapists help people to maintain as much movement and functional ability as possible. Occupational therapists look for any changes that may be needed at home. This is to help someone who is ill to stay at home safely. It will also help to support the family in providing care. These changes may include hand-rails in the toilet or shower, temporary ramps for wheelchairs and other aids to help with daily living. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists will often work together to help support people at home.


Psychological care can be obtained in hospitals and palliative care units, and in private practices through referrals from GPs. Psychologists undertake assessment and treatment of the cognitive (beliefs and attitudes), behavioural, emotional and social factors related to the management of palliative care, including non-drug approaches to pain management. They help patients, carers and health professionals develop strategies to better cope with the palliative process

Other health professionals

  • Dietitians, speech therapists, pharmacists and complementary therapists can all contribute to improving the quality of life of patients
  • Case managers are sometimes assigned to help coordinate care
  • Pharmacists can be found in chemist stores or in the hospital. They often provide helpful information on the effects of the drugs that patients are taking
  • Aboriginal Health workers are able to help Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Monday, September 23, 2013


We all have known from school that clothing is one of our basic needs. And as one of the needs, clothing is important in order for us to survive. However, do we really know the real importance of clothing? Well for some, they may say that they may live without wearing any clothing but the fact that it is just the opposite makes wearing clothes a need indeed.
Clothes are important as it covers our body. It protects us from extreme temperatures like the harsh cold during winter and the hotness during summer. With proper clothing, we can easily feel comfortable and even control the temperature of our own bodies. Thick clothing can help us insulate our bodies to fight cold and comfortable ones will help us to feel cool during summer. This is how important clothing is when it comes to survival.
Aside from weather protection, clothes also give us other purposes. In today’s time, clothes are important as moral values dictate us that we need to have clothing whenever we go outside. Even some law requires us to put some clothes. Company and even school policies also apply wearing proper clothes or uniforms whenever we work or go to school. These purposes are indeed important as there are punishments for not following the proper wearing of clothes.
Clothing is really important and luckily there are items like the Garnet Hill coupons that could help us gain big discounts in getting these clothing. With such coupons, we can easily get the clothing we want with the discounts we need in order to afford them. So if you want to get the clothing that you need, remember to get the aid of these money saving items in order for you to afford all the clothes you need.

Ever wonder how the universe could allow the existence of someone as annoying as your bratty little brother or sister? The answer lies in reproduction. If people — like your parents (ew!) — didn't reproduce, families would die out and the human race would cease to exist.


All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that set living things apart from nonliving matter. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.
In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes (pronounced: GAH-meetz), are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system. The female needs a male to fertilize her egg, even though it is she who carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth. When the sperm fertilizes, or meets, the egg, this fertilized egg is called the zygote. The zygote goes through a process of becoming an embryo and developing into a fetus.
Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves to the next generation through their genes, the special carriers of human traits. The genes that parents pass along to their children are what make children similar to others in their family, but they are also what make each child unique. These genes come from the father's sperm and the mother's egg, which are produced by the male and female reproductive systems.

Sunday, September 22, 2013


Talking therapies can help all sorts of people in many different situations.
Research shows that talking therapies work just as well whether you’re old or young, male or female, white or black, gay or straight, working class or middle class. Your educational background makes no difference either.
Talking therapy is for anyone who’s going through a bad time or who has emotional problems they can’t sort out on their own.
You may be able to get talking therapy on the NHS quickly and easily in your area. However, access to services in the UK depends on where you live. There may be a waiting time or you may have to travel for treatment, although the situation is improving. Talking therapy is widely available privately.
Sometimes it’s easier to talk to a stranger than to relatives or friends. During talking therapy, a trained therapist listens to you and helps you find your own answers to problems, without judging you. The therapist will give you time to talk, cry, shout or just think. It’s an opportunity to look at your problems in a different way with someone who’ll respect and encourage your opinions and the decisions you make.
Usually, you’ll talk one-to-one with the therapist. Sometimes, talking treatments are held in groups or in couples, such as relationship counselling.
Although there are many different types of talking therapy, they all have a similar aim: to make you feel better. Some people say that talking therapies don’t make their problems go away, but they find it easier to cope with them and feel happier. 
Here are some situations where talking therapy may help.

Mental health problems

Talking therapies can help if you have:
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • an eating disorder
  • a phobia
  • an addiction 
They're often used if you’ve been diagnosed with a serious mental health condition, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Talking therapies are commonly used alongside medicines.
Read more about coping with mental health problems.

Difficult life events

If you’re going through a sad and upsetting time, talking therapies can help you deal with it. This could be after a relative or friend has died, after finding out you have cancer, if you’re struggling with infertility or if you've lost your job.

Physical illness

Talking therapies can improve your quality of life if you have a lifelong physical illness, such as:
  • diabetes
  • multiple sclerosis
  • heart disease 
  • a stroke
People with long-term health conditions are particularly vulnerable to depression, and talking therapies have been proven to help.
Read more about how to look after yourself if you have a long-term health condition.


Older people, especially those with depression, are as likely to benefit from talking therapies as everyone else. Depression in later life, especially over the age of 65, is often dismissed as a normal part of ageing. However, this isn't the case and talking therapy can improve your enjoyment of life if you’re feeling low.
Take this short test to see if you're depressed.

Past abuse

If you’ve been physically or sexually abused, or experienced discrimination or racism, you may feel better able to cope with life after a course of talking therapy.

Relationship problems

Couples therapy can save a relationship that’s in trouble or help you through separation and divorce. Ideally, a couple should go to counselling together, but if your partner refuses to join you, counselling can help you sort out lots of things on your own.
Read about how to have a healthy divorce.

Troubled families

Family therapy is talking therapy that involves the whole family. It can be especially helpful for children with depression or a behavioural problem, or whose parents are splitting up. It can also help families where someone has an eating disorder, mental health condition or drug problem.


Talking therapy can help people who find it difficult to keep their anger under control.
Read more about how to manage anger.


Talking therapy works as well for children as it does for adults. NICE (the independent body that produces guidance on the effectiveness of medical treatments) recommends talking therapy rather than medicines for children who are depressed. It can also help children with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children who are in physical pain much of the time.


Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Remember, that Respiration = Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide.
Parts of the respiratory system
lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out. The red blood cells are responsible for picking up the oxygen in the lungs and carrying the oxygen to all the body cells that need it. The red blood cells drop off the oxygen to the body cells, then pick up the carbon dioxide which is a waste gas product produced by our cells. The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and we breathe it out when we exhale.
trachea (TRAY-kee-uh} is sometimes called the windpipe. The trachea filters the air we breathe and branches into the bronchi.

bronchi (BRAHN-ky) are two air tubes that branch off of the trachea and carry air directly into the lungs.

     Breathing starts with a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs called the
diaphragm (DY-uh-fram). When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This movement enlarges the space that the lungs are in. This larger space pulls air into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out. The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing.

The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth. The tongue is covered with moist, pink tissue called mucosa. Tiny bumps called papillae give the tongue its rough texture. Thousands of taste buds cover the surfaces of the papillae. Taste buds are collections of nerve-like cells that connect to nerves running into the brain.
The tongue is anchored to the mouth by webs of tough tissue and mucosa. The tether holding down the front of the tongue is called the frenum. In the back of the mouth, the tongue is anchored into the hyoid bone. The tongue is vital for chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech.
The four common tastes are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. A fifth taste, called umami, results from tasting glutamate (present in MSG). The tongue has many nerves that help detect and transmit taste signals to the brain. Because of this, all parts of the tongue can detect these four common tastes; the commonly described “taste map” of the tongue doesn’t really exist.