Friday, September 13, 2013


High blood pressure (hypertension) can quietly damage your body for years before symptoms develop. Left uncontrolled, you may wind up with a disability, a poor quality of life or even a fatal heart attack. Fortunately, with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can control your high blood pressure to reduce your risk of life-threatening complications.
Here's a look at the complications high blood pressure (hypertension) can cause when it's not effectively controlled.

Damage to your arteries

Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and elastic. Their inner lining is smooth so that blood flows freely, supplying vital organs and tissues with adequate nutrients and oxygen. If you have high blood pressure, the increased pressure of blood flowing through your arteries gradually can cause a variety of problems, including:
  • Artery damage and narrowing. High blood pressure can damage the cells of your arteries' inner lining. That launches a cascade of events that make artery walls thick and stiff, a disease called arteriosclerosis (ahr-teer-e-o-skluh-RO-sis), or hardening of the arteries. Fats from your diet enter your bloodstream, pass through the damaged cells and collect to start atherosclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-RO-sis). These changes can affect arteries throughout your body, blocking blood flow to your heart, kidneys, brain, arms and legs. The damage can cause many problems, including chest pain (angina), heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, blocked arteries in your legs or arms (peripheral arterial disease), eye damage, and aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm. Over time, the constant pressure of blood moving through a weakened artery can cause a section of its wall to enlarge and form a bulge (aneurysm). An aneurysm (AN-u-rizm) can potentially rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding. Aneurysms can form in any artery throughout your body, but they're most common in the aorta, your body's largest artery.

Damage to your heart

Your heart pumps blood to your entire body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart in a number of ways, such as:
  • Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Arteries narrowed by coronary artery disease don't allow blood to flow freely through your arteries. When blood can't flow freely to your heart, you can experience chest pain, a heart attack or irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
  • Enlarged left heart. High blood pressure forces your heart to work harder than necessary in order to pump blood to the rest of your body. This causes the left ventricle to thicken or stiffen (left ventricular hypertrophy). These changes limit the ventricle's ability to pump blood to your body. This condition increases your risk of heart attack, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
  • Heart failure. Over time, the strain on your heart caused by high blood pressure can cause your heart muscle to weaken and work less efficiently. Eventually, your overwhelmed heart simply begins to wear out and fail. Damage from heart attacks adds to this problem.

Damage to your brain

Just like your heart, your brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to work properly and survive. But high blood pressure can cause several problems, including:
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sometimes called a ministroke, a transient ischemic (is-KEM-ik) attack is a brief, temporary disruption of blood supply to your brain. It's often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — both of which can arise from high blood pressure. A transient ischemic attack is often a warning that you're at risk of a full-blown stroke.
  • Stroke. A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke by damaging and weakening your brain's blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries leading to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
  • Dementia. Dementia is a brain disease resulting in problems with thinking, speaking, reasoning, memory, vision and movement. There are a number of causes of dementia. One cause, vascular dementia, can result from narrowing and blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. It can also result from strokes caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain. In either case, high blood pressure may be the culprit. High blood pressure that occurs even as early as middle age can increase the risk of dementia in later years.
  • Mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition stage between the changes in understanding and memory that come with aging and the more serious problems caused by Alzheimer's disease. Like dementia, it can result from blocked blood flow to the brain when high blood pressure damages arteries.

Damage to your kidneys

Your kidneys filter excess fluid and waste from your blood — a process that depends on healthy blood vessels. High blood pressure can injure both the blood vessels in and leading to your kidneys, causing several types of kidney disease (nephropathy). Having diabetes in addition to high blood pressure can worsen the damage.
  • Kidney failure. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. That's because it can damage both the large arteries leading to your kidneys and the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) within the kidneys. Damage to either makes it so your kidneys can't effectively filter waste from your blood. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid and waste can accumulate. You might ultimately require dialysis or kidney transplantation.
  • Kidney scarring (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis (glo-mer-u-lo-skluh-RO-sis) is a type of kidney damage caused by scarring of the glomeruli (glo-MER-u-li). The glomeruli are tiny clusters of blood vessels within your kidneys that filter fluid and waste from your blood. Glomerulosclerosis can leave your kidneys unable to filter waste effectively, leading to kidney failure.
  • Kidney artery aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. When it occurs in an artery leading to the kidney, it's known as a kidney (renal) artery aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over time, high blood pressure in a weakened artery can cause a section to enlarge and form a bulge — the aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.

Thursday, September 12, 2013


Menstruation (men-STRAY-shuhn) is a woman's monthly bleeding. When you menstruate, your body sheds the lining of the uterus (womb). Menstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix and passes out of the body through the vagina  . Most menstrual periods last from 3 to 5 days.

What is the menstrual cycle?

When periods (menstruations) come regularly, this is called the menstrual cycle. Having regular menstrual cycles is a sign that important parts of your body are working normally. The menstrual cycle provides important body chemicals, called hormones, to keep you healthy. It also prepares your body for pregnancy each month. A cycle is counted from the first day of 1 period to the first day of the next period. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days long. Cycles can range anywhere from 21 to 35 days in adults and from 21 to 45 days in young teens.
The rise and fall of levels of hormones during the month control the menstrual cycle.

What happens during the menstrual cycle?

In the first half of the cycle, levels of estrogen (the “female hormone”) start to rise. Estrogen plays an important role in keeping you healthy, especially by helping you to build strong bones and to help keep them strong as you get older. Estrogen also makes the lining of the uterus (womb) grow and thicken. This lining of the womb is a place that will nourish the embryo if a pregnancy occurs. At the same time the lining of the womb is growing, an egg, or ovum, in one of the ovaries starts to mature. At about day 14 of an average 28-day cycle, the egg leaves the ovary. This is called ovulation.
After the egg has left the ovary, it travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Hormone levels rise and help prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy. A woman is most likely to get pregnant during the 3 days before or on the day of ovulation. Keep in mind, women with cycles that are shorter or longer than average may ovulate before or after day 14.
A woman becomes pregnant if the egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm cell and attaches to the uterine wall. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break apart. Then, hormone levels drop, and the thickened lining of the uterus is shed during the menstrual period.
See how the menstrual cycle works below.

What is a typical menstrual period like?

During your period, you shed the thickened uterine lining and extra blood through the vagina. Your period may not be the same every month. It may also be different than other women's periods. Periods can be light, moderate, or heavy in terms of how much blood comes out of the vagina. This is called menstrual flow. The length of the period also varies. Most periods last from 3 to 5 days. But, anywhere from 2 to 7 days is normal.
For the first few years after menstruation begins, longer cycles are common. A woman's cycle tends to shorten and become more regular with age. Most of the time, periods will be in the range of 21 to 35 days apart.
If you have a family member who is expecting a baby, it's important to be prepared in case the baby decides to come before anyone is ready. Delivering a baby is not hard, but it can be overwhelming. It's important to remember that chance favors the prepared, and delivering your baby in a hospital is the safest way to go. Do not use the information presented here as a substitute for getting proper prenatal care and arranging for delivery at an appropriate facility.

Here's How:

  1. Go to the hospital. As the uterus contracts to push the baby out of the birth canal, mom should feel pain and pressure. When mom feels labor progressing, especially if her water breaks, it's time to go to the hospital or call an ambulance. No matter how well this guide prepares you, it's better to deliver with the help of a professional.

    If you're cutting it close, call 911. If not, then you may be able to take the car. Either way, get going toward the Labor & Delivery ward as soon as possible.
  2. Get comfortable. If you're not able to go to the hospital right away, then mom needs space. Get her some pillows and a spot on the floor. Put some clean sheets down so baby doesn't touch the dirty floor. Mom will need at least one pillow under her hips. She can lay on her side until delivery. Prop up mom's back and support her during contractions.

    Baby is going to be very slippery. Putting mom on the floor makes sure that baby doesn't fall very far if you don't keep a good grip on him (or her)!
  3. Wash your hands. Baby will be born with very little immune system and is susceptable to infections. Follow universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment if you have it. Remember once you've washed your hands not to touch anything but mom, baby and the bedding.
  4. Check for crowning. As the cervix dilates, the baby's head moves down the birth canal and becomes visible. If you can see baby's head, then birth is imminent.

    You should be able to see the head clearly once it's visible. If it is obscured by a membrane stretched across it, then pinch the membrane and twist. The membrane is the amniotic sac, which should already have broken. If not, it will break easy when pinched and release the amniotic fluid. After that, things will move quickly!
  5. Guide the baby. Put your hand in front of the baby's head and let it come out nice and slow. Don't try to hold the baby back, but don't let it explode from the vagina either.

    The baby will slide out slowly in waves as mom's uterus contracts. As the baby comes out, it will turn to the side naturally. There is no need to try to force the baby or help it.

    Putting some gentle pressure on the base of the vagina near the perineum will help baby's head pass.
  6. STOP! Baby's head is out and mom needs to stop pushing (easy for me to say). Clean baby's nose and mouth with a bulb syringe. If you don't have a bulb syringe, use a clean towel to wipe away fluid and membrane from baby's airway.

    If you see the umbilical cord wrapped around the baby's neck, try to slip the cord over the baby's head. This is important, but there is a possibility you will not be able to release the cord. If the cord won't go, deliver the baby anyway.
  7. Guide the shoulders. Do NOT pull on the baby, but guide its shoulders out, starting with the top shoulder. If there is difficulty, you can put pressure on mom's abdomen just above the pubic bone to encourage the top shoulder to deliver.

    Once the shoulders are out, baby is going to slip right through. Hold on tight; the baby is slippery and will probably wiggle.
  8. Wrap baby up. Other than clearing the airway, the most important thing you can do for the baby is keeping it warm. Make sure to cover from head to toe, but leave the face open so the baby can breathe.
  9. Deliver the placenta. After the baby is delivered, the placenta will come. Don't try to force it or pull on the umbilical cord. The placenta will naturally deliver in about ten or fifteen minutes.
  10. Get to the hospital. Now that the fun part is over, it really is time to get to the hospital. There are still some important steps to make sure that baby and mom are fine. Those steps need to be performed at the hospital.

    You still have the placenta attached to the newborn by the umbilical cord. That will be fine for a few more minutes. There is very little to hurry about.

Female genital mutilation sometimes called female circumcision is one of the traditional practices that are deeply entrenched in many cultures and traditions worldwide with the practice more prominent in Africa including Nigeria.
The practice involves the partial removal of the external female genitals for either cultural or religious reasons.
There are so many beliefs that are attributed to the significance of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.
For instance, in the northern part of the country, it is believed that female genital mutilation makes the girl more fertile and aid easy delivery.
Also, among some Igbo tribes, a female is not regarded as a woman until she undergoes female genital mutilation, as she has attained high social status compared to her uncircumcised colleagues.
But the most popular reason for this practice is to make the female to live a chaste life before and after marriage which will in turn reduce level of promiscuity.
A recent report by the world health organization claimed that women who undergo circumcision stand greater risk of complications at child birth.
The cases of young girls who bleed to death in the process of circumcision makes the practice very harmful while a greater number of the victims are prone to easy contact of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, aids, as traditional surgeons who carry out the circumcision usually use unsterilized utensils like blade, scissors or knives for the exercise.
Female genital mutilation has however, continued to receive global attention as an estimated two million girls are at risk yearly.
In Nigeria, the prevalence rate of female genital mutilation is put between 40% and 50% but reports by United Nations statistics put the female genital mutilation rate at 60%.
Because female genital mutilation is rooted in cultural beliefs, some people have argued that the practice should be kept to sustain Africa’s cultural heritage but it is only wise to retain traditional practices that are edifying while those that are harmful to the victims be discarded.
This explains why the federal government has decided that sixth of February every year should be set aside as a national day for the elimination of female genital mutilation.
Although, there is no federal laws banning female genital mutilation in Nigeria, opponents of this practice rely on section 34 (1)(a) of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria which states that “ no person shall be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment” as the basis for banning the practice nationwide.
According to reports, Ogun, Osun, cross river, rivers, Bayelsa and Edo states have banned the practice since October 1999. Since medical research has shown that nothing good comes out of female genital mutilation, the federal ministry of health must assist other relevant bodies to take the education of the negative consequences of female genital mutilation to the grassroots.
Other states should emulate those that have banned the practice for uniformity.
The mass media should also intensify the campaign against female genital mutilation through their various programmes.
Religious bodies like churches and mosques as well as nongovernmental organizations must also be involved in creating and mounting public enlightenment programmes such as workshops and seminars at the local, state and federal levels with the aim of sensitizing people on the harmful effects and misconception surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation.
The earlier every individual desist from the act, the better it is for improved health of the womenfolk.


Children love watching television and movies, but too much of it during developmental years can have a significant negative impact on them, experts say.
Health providers and teachers across the country are reporting faltering academic abilities, attention problems and language difficulties with both reading comprehension and oral expression. Research suggests a strong link between many of the growing problems and excessive use of television.
Children watch so much television today. They also play video games, watch movies and use computers much more than children did a few years ago. As children do this, they tend to lessen other important activities that aid in development of reading, social and some types of thinking skills. Other concerns for children include that they maintain good eyesight and physical fitness.
Studies show that long periods of television may hamper development of the pre-frontal cortex -- the area of the brain responsible for planning, organizing and sequencing behavior for self-control, moral judgment and attention .
Some researchers believe this may be one explanation of the widespread problem of attention deficit disorder and some behavior problems. While some children have always been more prone than others to attention problems, cases have increased, and studies link the increase to the concurrent rise of television watching in the day-to-day activities of children.
The visual nature of television or other media stimuli do not develop the part of the brain responsible for language. Children who watch too much television and do not read enough may have trouble paying attention and listening to comprehend language.

It's important that parents take time reading out loud to their children and help them develop their own reading and comprehension skills.  Parents should make plans with their children for weekly television viewing. Select shows that you will allow children to watch instead of leaving the television on all the time.
Children who have televisions or computers in their rooms tend to watch more programs and play on the computer with less supervision. Adults should be available to watch with their children to ensure they view appropriate programs. Emphasize that homework comes first and that it requires a student's full attention, without the distraction of television.
With a little planning, parents can protect children from the negative effects of television and other media. Keep common sense in mind. "If children watch television or are on the computer all the time, then they will not get the three to four hours of vigorous activity and play time needed for health development, and they will not read and converse with their parents enough to develop some important social skills. "

Bathe or shower as regularly as you feel comfortable. How often is a matter of who you are as a person — your culture, gender, ethnicity, and/or where you live. Some people like to shower or bathe every day and others do it less often.
The main purposes of bathing or showering are to remove dirt and odors and slough off dead skin cells — basically, to maintain good hygiene. In addition, people bathe or shower to feel clean, smell fresh, revitalize, or relax.
Bathing or showering is a personal choice with social and cultural influences. People from different countries or cultures may hold different views on personal hygiene and body aroma, none of which are right or wrong, only different. For example, Americans are smell-conscious and cleanliness-oriented ("cleanliness is next to godliness"). For some countries, attention to hygiene may not be as high a priority as food and shelter. Water may be a limited resource that they would prefer to use for drinking, cooking, and agriculture, rather than for bathing or showering. On the other hand, some individuals in other societies are highly focused on hygiene.
There may be times when other people will object, either by verbal or facial expression, to the way you smell and vice versa. If you are affected by this, and are living with someone or are in close quarters with other people on a regular basis, you may want to consider bathing more often (at least every other day), and bathing after any activity that involves perspiration (including stressful times). In addition, people can learn and understand why your hygiene practices differ.
Regarding body odor, poor or inadequate hygiene habits are not the only culprits. The consumption of strong smelling foods and their odors (including tobacco use), absorbed by clothes, hair, and skin, may also contribute to body odor. Some people may also have a physiological impairment that causes pronounced natural body odor.
Bathing or showering infrequently is not harmful. But, it is important to realize that good hygiene can help promote health and prevent disease. If it weren't for the revolutionary changes in hygiene, sanitation, and the environment at the turn of the century in the United States, certain infectious diseases would continue to be a burden on the public health of our society.

The reason why wearing a seatbelt is important is because seatbelts are designed to protect, it is the law and statistics prove that wearing a seatbelt is safer than not wearing one at all, and wearing a seatbelt will save a person money on medical bills and related costs due to an accident.
Seatbelts are designed to protect drivers and all passengers. A three-point harnessed seatbelt will protect vital internal organs and bones. While properly wearing a seatbelt a person is protecting their ribs, spine, neck and skull. Along with those bones, a person is protecting organs such as their heart and brain. A seatbelt will also protect a person from whiplash. Injuries due to a person not wearing a seatbelt include abdominal injuries (if worn too high), skin abrasions and injuries to the carotid artery, throat and cervical spine. Injuries to the chest, shoulders and ribs are at high risk if not properly wearing a seatbelt.
Seatbelts are important when it comes to the law. Although laws on seatbelts vary from state to state, the state of Washington stated that all occupants of a driving vehicle must be properly restrained. The driver is also responsible for making sure any passenger under the age of 16 are properly restrained in all seating positions. Failing to do so will lead to a $124.00 safety violation fine, no matter what age or where the person is located in the vehicle. Half of the United States charge a $25.00 violation fee as of May 2010.
Statistics prove that wearing a seatbelt is safer than not wearing one at all. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, occupants of a vehicle have a 50% increase of fatal injuries if no seatbelt is worn. Due to car accidents, on average there are 40,000 deaths each year. Of the deaths in children due to not wearing a seatbelt 80% of them could have been avoided by properly restraining the child with a seatbelt.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013


Direct spending by tourists and the associated economic multiplier effect
Tourism generates different types of income for a community: business income, wage earnings, share earnings, rates and levies. Direct spending by visitors has a positive impact on business profitability and employment growth. The money that is then circulated and re-spent in the economy is often referred to as indirect spending or the multiplier effect. Because much of a region’s tourism patronage comes from metropolitan centres, it is an effective way to redistribute wealth from urban to rural areas.
A varied economic base
The expectations and needs of visitors can often lead to the creation of new businesses and commercial activities. This builds a more diverse economic base and reduces reliance on one or two traditional industries, which is often the case in rural communities.
Tourism is a labour intensive industry and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. There are many opportunities for employment for young people and for people interested in part time or casual work. While some of the employment is skilled, there are also opportunities for people less skilled and who lack formal qualifications.
New business
A thriving tourism industry supports growth in other sectors, such as transport, construction, agriculture and retailing. As tourism increases, there are more opportunities for small business to develop.
Increased commercial and residential development
Tourism development often results in increased revenue to councils through rates and other charges. Tourism can act as a shop window for the lifestyle of the area. It is increasingly common for people who visit and are impressed with the area to return as residents, thereby increasing demand for housing and other services.

Social Benefits

Increasing community facilities
Tourism can stimulate new and expanded community facilities and infrastructure initiatives, such as the improvement of retail, restaurant and entertainment options, transport services, education and sporting facilities. These increase the quality of life for the community, which may not otherwise warrant the improvement, based on the residential population alone.
Preservation of cultural heritage
Tourism activity often prompts the conservation of cultural heritage, either as a result of increased awareness and pride, or because it can be justified on economic grounds as a tourist attraction.
A broadened community outlook
Tourism can encourage communities to widen their outlook and to embrace new ideas. It provides opportunities for residents to interact with other people, lifestyles and cultures.
Increased community awareness and pride
Attracting visitors to an area can heighten local awareness and interest, resulting in a greater sense of pride and ownership. The community takes stock of its assets and distinctive characteristics. This increase in pride can lead to community celebration or the revival of cultural activities. Knowing that others have travelled across the state, country or world to visit can considerably boost a community’s collective ego.

In many areas tourism has helped to slow or halt the drift to cities, by not only making the local area and its employment opportunities more attractive to young people, but by attracting ‘sea changers and ‘tree changers’ from major population bases.

Environmental benefits

Without long term strategic planning, tourism development can be detrimental to the local environment. Embarking on major promotional campaigns for an area without first ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place can have devastating effects on the environment and resident community, with potentially costly consequences.
Tourism development based on an environmental and commercially sustainable approach, integrated into the wider planning process, can generate significant benefits for the local environment, business and community. It requires proper planning and land management policies to ensure that the environment (whether it is beaches, parks or gardens, heritage landscapes or streetscapes) is preserved.
On the credit side, tourism has been partly responsible for increased interest in, and concern for, the natural and built environment and its condition. Effective visitor information services, interpretative signing, guided tours etc can raise the profile of natural assets and issues surrounding them. In many cases tourism has provided an economic argument for conservation, preservation and restoration of natural and built resources.

Watermelons are important in life because they bring great joy to college students. There is nothing more fun than getting together with a bunch of your friends on the top of the dorm and throwing a watermelon off the top and watching it explode on the ground.They provide a cool, hydrating and sweet treat, especially in the summer. They are a valuable cash crop for many small farmers, and an easy to grow vegetable for family farms. Those not used by humans are abundant seed crops for birds and squirrels.Watermelons are not at all important to life. The only importance watermelons have is their minor nutritional value. Life would go on just fine if there were no watermelons. However, if their ceased to be water, there would be no life. I wonder why someone would question why watermelons are important to life.They are juicy, refreshing, thirst quenching, delicious and healthy. It's importance in relation to life is negligible. It's not really that important because there are other fruits that fulfill the same qualities as the watermelon, and maybe even better.Watermelon is a fruit that can be an
important part of a daily diet. The watermelon is rich in vitamins A, and C. It also contains vitamin B6 which the body uses for the production of energy. Watermelon is also a fruit that most people enjoy.watermelons are fruits that have vitamin a that makes our eyes look brighter and many more plus it gives us
carbohydrates for energy for the whole day!Watermelon is also a very concentrated source of the carotenoid, lycopene. Well known for being abundant in tomatoes and particularly well absorbed from cooked tomato products containing a little fat such as olive oil, lycopene is also present in high amounts in watermelon and mangoes.


A good fog lamp produces a wide, bar-shaped beam of light with a sharp horizontal cutoff (dark above, bright below) at the top of the beam, and minimal upward light above the cutoff. Almost all factory-installed or dealer-optional fog lamps, and a great many aftermarket units, are essentially useless for any purpose, especially for extremely demanding poor-weather driving. Many of them are too small to produce enough light to make a difference, produce beam patterns too narrow to help, lack a sufficiently-sharp cutoff, and throw too much glare light into the eyes of other drivers, no matter how they're aimed.
Good (and legal) fog lamps produce white or Selective Yellow light, and use tungsten-halogen bulbs. Xenon or HID bulbs are inherently unsuitable for use in fog lamps, and blue or other-colored lights are also the wrong choice.
The fog lamps' job is to show you the edges of the road, the lane markings, and the immediate foreground. When used in combination with the headlamps, good fog lamps weight the overall beam pattern towards the foreground so that even though there may be a relatively high level of upward stray light from the headlamps causing glareback from the fog or falling rain or snow, there will be more foreground light than usual without a corresponding increase in upward stray light, giving back some of the vision you lose to precipitation.
When used without headlamps in conditions of extremely poor visibility due to snow, fog or heavy rain, good fog lamps light the foreground and the road edges only, so you can see your way safely at reduced speeds.
In clear conditions, more foreground light is not a good thing, it's a bad thing. Some foreground light is necessary so you can use your peripheral vision to see where you are relative to the road edges, the lane markings and that pothole 10 feet in front of your left wheels. But foreground light is far less safety-critical than light cast well down the road into the distance, because at any significant speed (much above 30 mph), what's in the foreground is too close for you to do much about. If you increase the foreground light, your pupils react to the bright, wide pool of light by constricting, which in turn substantially reduces your distance vision—especially since there's no increase in down-the-road distance light to go along with the increased foreground light. It's insidious, because high levels of foreground light give the illusion, the subjective impression, of comfort and security and "good lighting".
US-DOT headlamps have historically tended to provide relatively low, arguably inadequate levels of light in the foreground and to the sides. Many US DOT headlamps have what seems to be a "black hole" in front of the car, with essentially the entire beam concentrated in a narrow band or ball of light thrown into the distance. With headlamps like these, a decent argument can be made for the use of fog lamps to fill the "black hole", that is, to add-back the missing foreground and lateral-spread light when driving at moderate speeds on dark and/or twisty roads. Of course, lamps to rectify inadequate foreground light must be thoughtfully and carefully selected, correctly aimed and properly used. Otherwise, they're useless at best and dangerous at worst.
In some places, the law prohibits the use of fog lamps without the low beam headlamps also being on. Whether or not this is the case where you drive, it's vital to realize that fog lamp beams, by definition, have a much shorter reach than headlamp beams. If you drive in conditions foul enough to call for the use of fog lamps without headlamps, it's essential to have good fog lamps that are up to the task and are properly aimed, and it's imperative that you slow down because even with high-performance fog lamps, you can't see as far with fog lamps and in poor weather as you can with headlamps and in clear weather.
If the road is wet or slick with ice, but there's no falling precipitation, fog lamps should be used with discretion. Their extra downward light can help compensate for the tendency of water to "soak up" the light on the road from your headlamps. But, this extra downward light hitting a road surface shiny with water or ice will also create high levels of reflected glare for other drivers. Since we're all "other drivers" to everybody else on the road, it's well to think of roadway safety as a cooperative effort. In most driving situations, fog lamps are neither useful nor necessary, but more people use their fog lamps when the prevailing conditions don't call for their use, than use them when the conditions do call for their use. Nobody thinks your car is cool because it has fog lamps, and glare is dangerous, so do yourself and everyone a favor: choose them carefully, aim them properly, use them thoughtfully, and leave them off except when they're genuinely necessary.

Monday, September 09, 2013


Mountain climbing is an exciting sport to many people because of the physical and psychological benefits that go along with it. Mountain climbers are generally thought of as risk seekers, but they are much more than that. This activity takes careful planning, the help of a dedicated group of fellow climbers, and the ability to face fears to be successful. The psychological effects come from the difficulty that is involved to plan and execute these feats.
Mountain climbing is a social activity for most climbers, at least to a certain extent. It is necessary for climbers to learn the basics from other climbers, as well as to help each other up difficult mountains. This means that many mountain climbers develop close relationships because they have to trust the others with their life. This is an advantage when it comes to interpersonal relationships and good communication that can lead to positive benefits outside of climbing.
Climbing a mountain can be a very meditative experience, and not because of the beautiful scenery. This activity is similar to meditation because you need to be very present in the moment to be safe and successful. You are focusing on what you are doing and not worrying about the past or the future. This is mentally healthy because it can lessen anxiety, help with relaxation and lead to clarity of thought.
Facing your fears can be an intense psychological experience that can lead you to greater things in life. After taking risks climbing mountains, you generally will want to continue going after things that once appeared frightening to you. This means going back to college, asking for a promotion at work, or taking a risk by asking a person out whom you would like to date. Once you are successful at beating your fears, you become less scared of other things in the world.
Mountain climbing can help you see the bigger picture of life because you realize how fragile and precious life can be. This is a psychological state that often occurs in activities where injury or death is a possibility. Being humbled is a psychological advantage because you become a kinder, more grateful individual. This can facilitate healthier relationships, a higher life satisfaction, and the desire to accomplish further challenges that make you feel good.

Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world and one of the most widely viewed. It is a team sport that involves two teams of five active players each trying to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a 300cm (10 foot) high hoop (the ‘basket’) under organised rules. It is played on both indoor and outdoor courts.

The size of the court, height of the basket, size of the basketball, and length of time that the game is played, all vary according to the age, size and skill level of players.

Basketball is a fast moving game that involves a lot of variety, including shooting, dribbling, passing, rebounding, defence and much more.

Health benefits

Basketball involves a lot of starting and stopping. While not renowned as an aerobic sport, it is still a great workout that can help you:
  • Burn calories (an hour of basketball can burn 630–750 calories)
  • Build endurance
  • Improve balance and coordination
  • Develop concentration and self-discipline
  • Build up muscle.

Other benefits

As well as being a great way to stay fit, basketball can also:
  • Help you to make new friends and see them regularly
  • Teach you about being a good team player
  • Be played by people of all ages and all abilities
  • Be played all year round because it’s usually an indoor sport
  • Be a fun game that kids of all levels and ages can enjoy
  • Be practised alone – all you need is a net and a hoop (and you can find a hoop in most local parks and school grounds)
  • Be played and enjoyed with as few as two people (although official games require 10 players).

 Equipment required:

One of the great things about the game is that apart from having a basketball, you require very little other equipment to play. However, as basketball involves a lot of running and jumping, it can also be wise to have the following:
  • Basketball or sports shoes that provide good ankle support
  • Mouth guards
  • Protective knee and elbow pads

Some general tips before playing;

  • Adults should check with their doctor before taking up basketball.
  • Be aware that basketball is a fast-action game with lots of running, jumping, pivoting and twisting, so injuries and accidents can happen easily.
  • Basketball puts a lot of stress on the legs, especially the knees and ankles, and puts pressure on tight shoulders.
  • Protect yourself by becoming strong and flexible, as basketball is a very physically demanding game.
  • Warm up and stretch your muscles and joints before hitting the court. Also cool down and stretch after playing.
  • Make sure you have plenty of fluids on hand and rehydrate regularly.
  • Don’t overdo it (this will depend on your age and condition). Mix it up with other low-impact sports.
  • While playing in a full team competition is great, you can also have fun and benefit from a small space, a basket and a game of one on one.


Eating a healthy, balanced diet provides nutrients to your body. These nutrients give you energy and keep your heart beating, your brain active, and your muscles working.
Nutrients also help build and strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons and also regulate body processes, such as blood pressure.
Good nutrition can lower your risk of developing a range of chronic diseases.  For example, eating more fruit and vegetables can help lower blood pressure and may lower your risk of certain types of cancer (such as colorectal, breast, lung and prostate cancer). Eating less saturated fat may also lower your risk of heart disease.
Healthy eating can also help people that already have some types of disease or illness such as diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure.  And, of course, improving your eating habits will contribute to you achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
Try to achieve a balance with the foods you eat and include lots of variety and remember, all things in moderation.

Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land, air, and water. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centres from where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps. However, either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure, not all of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. If at this stage the management and disposal is improperly done, it can cause serious impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment.
Waste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. The plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that is generated should be controlled by taking certain preventive measures.

Impacts of solid waste on health
The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. Other high-risk group include population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury, and infection.
In particular, organic domestic waste poses a serious threat, since they ferment, creating conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable.
Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health, children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. In fact, direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical poisoning. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste.
Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Other than this, co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff, resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of disease. Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or the ground water source. Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers, seas, and lakes results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it.
Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can create major health hazards. This waste generated from the hospitals, health care centres, medical laboratories, and research centres such as discarded syringe needles, bandages, swabs, plasters, and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste.
Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighbourhood. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that spread disease. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe distance from all human settlement. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water sources.
Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of health-care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards, such as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled, may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items.

Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste.

The role of plastics
The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour plastics have been legally banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their example.

Preventive measures
Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there.
At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting, which is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment of the waste. In fact, the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily, attracts insects and causes disease. Organic waste can be composted and then used as a fertilizer.

Sunday, September 08, 2013


We need to know all that sneezing is a way of defending the body or mechanism to prevent the entry of germs, bacteria and other foreign substances into our bodies, if you sneeze the same way you prevent thwart the release of germs and dirt out of your nose due to sneeze the air and debris that surround the nasal cavity so that the nose will come out clean and feels good when breathing, no distractions.

In addition to the above sneezing functions can also activate the brain and relieve your body. Deliberately thwart sneeze can cause hearing loss, emphysema (occurs because a person often hold sneeze), besides nosebleeds, impaired balance and dizziness came from others.

When we are in a place that is dirty or germs then sneezing very stony, but if at the time of the meeting or the meeting then asked permission to a quiet room to sneeze because if at the same place then the person is in the room was disturbed by because it means a sneeze sneezing germs, dirt, and even germs, do not forget to cover your nose with a tissue,

At allergy to pollen, dust or mold making sneeze. The nose, which act as filters, work to eliminate this allergy to drive them through sneezing. Allergies are entering the nose are often made of tiny particles, it may take a few sneezes to relieve the irritation. Furthermore, as long as we remain in contact with the allergen environment, we will continue to sneeze periodically.


Alcoholic beverages are imbibed across the world. For some they serve as a uniting commonality for socializing, while others partake in tasty alcohol-containing drinks to reach altered states of consciousness, or to get drunk. The paradox of enjoying alcoholic beverages is that it comes with benefits and risks not just to your physical health but also other significant domains of your life, including work and relationships. The key to staying on the side of gleaning the advantages of alcohol use resides in safe, moderate consumption.

Advantage: Heart Health

The cardiovascular system includes your heart, circulatory and neurological systems, and cardiovascular disease is the primary killer of American men and women. Cardiovascular diseases can impact your arteries and heart, blood vessels leading to major organs or your brain, and include damage to any of these systems that can lead to stroke or heart attack. People free of cardiovascular complications actually can protect this system with moderate alcohol consumption. According to Harvard Health Publications, moderate alcohol use raises the high-density lipoprotein, or good cholesterol, level in your bloodstream, which plays a role in reducing the risk of clots in your blood vessels.

Disadvantage: Heart-Health Risk

Moderate alcohol consumption in healthy adults can be cardio-protective, but excessive alcohol consumption or alcohol use if you have existing heart disease increases your risk of heart complications. Continued alcohol use if you have high blood pressure can lead to blockage in the arteries from the brain, causing a sudden or severe disruption in the brain blood supply, or stroke. Excess alcohol consumption also increases the chance of chronic high blood pressure, which impacts the functionality of your heart.

Advantage: Other Health-Risk Reduction

Type 2 diabetes, a form of chronic metabolic disease due to poor insulin production, can result from differing contributing factors, like poor diet, pancreatic complications or obesity. Studies indicate that the risk of developing diabetes is reduced with regular, moderate alcohol consumption, but the exact benefit of alcohol on blood glucose management warrants ongoing research. Gallstones develop in the gallbladder and can result from too much cholesterol in the diet. Alcohol might minimize the risk of cholesterol accumulation that leads to gallstones. Consequently, excess alcohol consumption also can cause complications in blood glucose management if you have diabetes and poor liver functions that increase the risk of gallstones.

Disadvantage: Abuse and Alcoholism

The psychological impact of drinking alcohol presents with a wide-range of consequences depending on your drinking pattern. Alcohol abuse occurs when you engage in drinking that is unsafe and harmful to others. Binge drinking is a form of alcohol abuse. Blackouts or alcohol poisoning resulting from over-consumption are serious residual effects of alcohol abuse. Alcoholism develops over time as you require more beverages to achieve the intoxicating results, when you experience withdrawal symptoms when you do not drink, and when you engage in unsafe behaviors that impact yourself and others. Alcoholism and abuse often result in loss of relationships, loss of employment, vehicular accidents or violence.

Palm oil comes from the fruit of the elaeis guineensuis tree, also called the African oil palm tree. Native to Malaysia, the tree bears a fleshy fruit which is the source of both palm oil and palm kernel oil. Palm oil is entirely different than palm kernel oil, which has a higher amount of saturated fat and has to be heavily processed to be extracted. Palm kernel oil is, in general, unhealthy.
Palm kernel oil is rich in antioxidants. Many studies have discovered that tocotrienols may have the ability to reverse blockage of the carotid artery and platelet aggregation thereby reducing the risk of stroke, tumor promotion arteriosclerosis and other heart disease problems. This is thus one of the health benefits of palm kernel oil as it is rich in tocotrienols. Tocotrienols present in palm oil may also inhibit certain types of cancer. Palm kernel oil increases ‘good’ cholesterol as compared to other saturated oils such as coconut oil. Thus the health benefits of palm kernel oil also include promoting healthy cardiovascular health.
As it is known has one of the most versatile of all vegetable oils. Consisting of 50% saturated fat and 50% unsaturated fat it is semi-solid at room temperature. It is also odourless and tasteless. These two properties have made palm oil ideal for baked goods and packaged foods. Palm oil also works well with fried foods and stir-fry because its quality doesn’t diminish under extremely high heat. Unlike most nutritional oils, palm oil is highly resistant to oxidation, giving it a longer shelf life.

Palm oil is rich in Vitamin A which is an effective antioxidant that strengthens the body’s immune system and reduces risk of cancer, heart disease and cataract. Lack of Vitamin A can lead to blindness and a many other medical problems. Palm kernel oil is also rich in Vitamin E. No other vegetable oil has more Vitamin E than Palm Oil. Vitamin E is also a powerful anti-oxidant, capable of reducing free radicals in the body. Palm kernel oil thus protects you from certain chronic diseases and also delays the body’s ageing process.
Another reason why you should use palm kernel oil in your cooking is because it supplies fatty acids as well as important fat-soluble micronutrients like carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A), vitamins D, E and K. Fatty acids are raw materials for building the membranes of every cell in your body, including your bones, nerves and brain! The micronutrients keep your body cells healthy and functioning properly.

    Vegetables, like fruits, are low in fat but contain good amounts of vitamins and minerals. All the Green-Yellow-Orange vegetables are rich sources of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, beta-carotene, vitamin B-complex, vitamin-C, vitamin A, and vitamin K.
  • As in fruits, vegetables too are home for many antioxidants that; firstly, help protect the human body from oxidant stress, diseases and cancers, and secondly; help the body develop the capacity to fight against these by boosting immunity.
  • Additionally, vegetables are packed with soluble as well as insoluble dietary fiber known as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) such as cellulose, mucilage, hemi-cellulose, gums, pectin...etc. These substances absorb excess water in the colon, retain a good amount of moisture in the fecal matter, and help its smooth passage out of the body. Thus, sufficient fiber offers protection from conditions like hemorrhoids, colon cancer, chronic constipation, and rectal fissures.
Greens  help you stay fit and healthy!
Vegetable nutrition has widely drawn the attention of fitness conscious as well as food scientists alike for their proven health benefits. Majority of day to day used vegetables are very low in calories. Celery is just 16 calories per 100 g. And again here is the long list of vegetables whose calorie is less than 20 per 100 g such as bottle gourd, bitter melon, cabbage, chinese cabbage, bok-choy, eggplant, endive, spinach, summer squash, swiss chard; etc. Scientific studies have shown that low-calorie but nutrient-rich foods help the human body stay fit and disease free.
Furthermore, human body spends a considerable amount of energy for the metabolism of foods, which is known as BMR or Basal metabolism rate. So just imagine…when you add lots of vegetable nutrition in the diet, in fact, you set to lose more weight than you would gain…Right!..This is the concept behind the "negative calorie foods."